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Asymmetric lipid membranes: towards more realistic model systems.

Marquardt D, Geier B, Pabst G - Membranes (Basel) (2015)

Bottom Line: Despite the ubiquity of transbilayer asymmetry in natural cell membranes, the vast majority of existing research has utilized chemically well-defined symmetric liposomes, where the inner and outer bilayer leaflets have the same composition.Here, we review various aspects of asymmetry in nature and in model systems in anticipation for the next phase of model membrane studies.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Institute of Molecular Biosciences, Biophysics Division, University of Graz, NAWI Graz, Humboldtstr 50/III, Graz, 8010, Austria. drew.marquardt@uni-graz.at.

ABSTRACT
Despite the ubiquity of transbilayer asymmetry in natural cell membranes, the vast majority of existing research has utilized chemically well-defined symmetric liposomes, where the inner and outer bilayer leaflets have the same composition. Here, we review various aspects of asymmetry in nature and in model systems in anticipation for the next phase of model membrane studies.

No MeSH data available.


Schematic of an integral protein orienting itself according to electrostatic attraction between positive domains on the protein and negatively-charged lipids on the inner leaflet.
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membranes-05-00180-f007: Schematic of an integral protein orienting itself according to electrostatic attraction between positive domains on the protein and negatively-charged lipids on the inner leaflet.

Mentions: It is known that there is an asymmetric distribution of lipid charge across the bilayer, with a higher anionic charge, typically due to PS, at the cytoplasm-facing monolayer. The orientation of transmembrane (TM) proteins is often dictated by the location of charged lipid species. For example, many TM proteins carry a positive charge on their cytosolic domain, which likely helps the protein orient toward the inner leaflet due to the large PS content (negative charge density) of the cytosolic leaflet [85,86]; see Figure 7. Heijne and Gavel postulate that a positive inside rule for integral proteins is a universal property, and studies have shown that, in fact, statistically, a positive inside rule applies to eukaryotic cells [86,87]. However, the positive inside rule correlates stronger for prokaryotic cells [87].


Asymmetric lipid membranes: towards more realistic model systems.

Marquardt D, Geier B, Pabst G - Membranes (Basel) (2015)

Schematic of an integral protein orienting itself according to electrostatic attraction between positive domains on the protein and negatively-charged lipids on the inner leaflet.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4496639&req=5

membranes-05-00180-f007: Schematic of an integral protein orienting itself according to electrostatic attraction between positive domains on the protein and negatively-charged lipids on the inner leaflet.
Mentions: It is known that there is an asymmetric distribution of lipid charge across the bilayer, with a higher anionic charge, typically due to PS, at the cytoplasm-facing monolayer. The orientation of transmembrane (TM) proteins is often dictated by the location of charged lipid species. For example, many TM proteins carry a positive charge on their cytosolic domain, which likely helps the protein orient toward the inner leaflet due to the large PS content (negative charge density) of the cytosolic leaflet [85,86]; see Figure 7. Heijne and Gavel postulate that a positive inside rule for integral proteins is a universal property, and studies have shown that, in fact, statistically, a positive inside rule applies to eukaryotic cells [86,87]. However, the positive inside rule correlates stronger for prokaryotic cells [87].

Bottom Line: Despite the ubiquity of transbilayer asymmetry in natural cell membranes, the vast majority of existing research has utilized chemically well-defined symmetric liposomes, where the inner and outer bilayer leaflets have the same composition.Here, we review various aspects of asymmetry in nature and in model systems in anticipation for the next phase of model membrane studies.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Institute of Molecular Biosciences, Biophysics Division, University of Graz, NAWI Graz, Humboldtstr 50/III, Graz, 8010, Austria. drew.marquardt@uni-graz.at.

ABSTRACT
Despite the ubiquity of transbilayer asymmetry in natural cell membranes, the vast majority of existing research has utilized chemically well-defined symmetric liposomes, where the inner and outer bilayer leaflets have the same composition. Here, we review various aspects of asymmetry in nature and in model systems in anticipation for the next phase of model membrane studies.

No MeSH data available.