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Asymmetric lipid membranes: towards more realistic model systems.

Marquardt D, Geier B, Pabst G - Membranes (Basel) (2015)

Bottom Line: Despite the ubiquity of transbilayer asymmetry in natural cell membranes, the vast majority of existing research has utilized chemically well-defined symmetric liposomes, where the inner and outer bilayer leaflets have the same composition.Here, we review various aspects of asymmetry in nature and in model systems in anticipation for the next phase of model membrane studies.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Institute of Molecular Biosciences, Biophysics Division, University of Graz, NAWI Graz, Humboldtstr 50/III, Graz, 8010, Austria. drew.marquardt@uni-graz.at.

ABSTRACT
Despite the ubiquity of transbilayer asymmetry in natural cell membranes, the vast majority of existing research has utilized chemically well-defined symmetric liposomes, where the inner and outer bilayer leaflets have the same composition. Here, we review various aspects of asymmetry in nature and in model systems in anticipation for the next phase of model membrane studies.

No MeSH data available.


Putative transbilayer coupling mechanisms in asymmetric lipid membranes.  Asymmetric lipids containing fatty acid chains of differing length have been observed to interdigitate;  Trans-bilayer cholesterol (Chol) movement;  the ordered leaflet induces order to the less ordered leaflet;  the area per lipid of one leaflet influences the area per lipid of the other, and vice versa. Such an area difference can arise from lipid species or charge differences between monolayers;  Curvature and/or microemulsion in one leaflet can be transferred to the other.
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membranes-05-00180-f005: Putative transbilayer coupling mechanisms in asymmetric lipid membranes. Asymmetric lipids containing fatty acid chains of differing length have been observed to interdigitate; Trans-bilayer cholesterol (Chol) movement; the ordered leaflet induces order to the less ordered leaflet; the area per lipid of one leaflet influences the area per lipid of the other, and vice versa. Such an area difference can arise from lipid species or charge differences between monolayers; Curvature and/or microemulsion in one leaflet can be transferred to the other.

Mentions: The effects of asymmetry on the properties of each leaflet have been examined both experimentally and by simulations. Figure 5 surmises presently discussed interleaflet coupling mechanisms. For example, using fluorescence anisotropy measurements, it has been found that SM in the outer leaflet of asymmetric bilayers melts independently of unsaturated PC in the inner leaflet [10,28,59,61]. A coupling between lateral diffusion in the outer and inner leaflet was observed for bilayers composed of lipids with mixed acyl chains (saturated/unsaturated, long/short), suggesting a hydrocarbon chain interdigitation-mediated mechanism [64], in support of theoretical considerations [65].


Asymmetric lipid membranes: towards more realistic model systems.

Marquardt D, Geier B, Pabst G - Membranes (Basel) (2015)

Putative transbilayer coupling mechanisms in asymmetric lipid membranes.  Asymmetric lipids containing fatty acid chains of differing length have been observed to interdigitate;  Trans-bilayer cholesterol (Chol) movement;  the ordered leaflet induces order to the less ordered leaflet;  the area per lipid of one leaflet influences the area per lipid of the other, and vice versa. Such an area difference can arise from lipid species or charge differences between monolayers;  Curvature and/or microemulsion in one leaflet can be transferred to the other.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4496639&req=5

membranes-05-00180-f005: Putative transbilayer coupling mechanisms in asymmetric lipid membranes. Asymmetric lipids containing fatty acid chains of differing length have been observed to interdigitate; Trans-bilayer cholesterol (Chol) movement; the ordered leaflet induces order to the less ordered leaflet; the area per lipid of one leaflet influences the area per lipid of the other, and vice versa. Such an area difference can arise from lipid species or charge differences between monolayers; Curvature and/or microemulsion in one leaflet can be transferred to the other.
Mentions: The effects of asymmetry on the properties of each leaflet have been examined both experimentally and by simulations. Figure 5 surmises presently discussed interleaflet coupling mechanisms. For example, using fluorescence anisotropy measurements, it has been found that SM in the outer leaflet of asymmetric bilayers melts independently of unsaturated PC in the inner leaflet [10,28,59,61]. A coupling between lateral diffusion in the outer and inner leaflet was observed for bilayers composed of lipids with mixed acyl chains (saturated/unsaturated, long/short), suggesting a hydrocarbon chain interdigitation-mediated mechanism [64], in support of theoretical considerations [65].

Bottom Line: Despite the ubiquity of transbilayer asymmetry in natural cell membranes, the vast majority of existing research has utilized chemically well-defined symmetric liposomes, where the inner and outer bilayer leaflets have the same composition.Here, we review various aspects of asymmetry in nature and in model systems in anticipation for the next phase of model membrane studies.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Institute of Molecular Biosciences, Biophysics Division, University of Graz, NAWI Graz, Humboldtstr 50/III, Graz, 8010, Austria. drew.marquardt@uni-graz.at.

ABSTRACT
Despite the ubiquity of transbilayer asymmetry in natural cell membranes, the vast majority of existing research has utilized chemically well-defined symmetric liposomes, where the inner and outer bilayer leaflets have the same composition. Here, we review various aspects of asymmetry in nature and in model systems in anticipation for the next phase of model membrane studies.

No MeSH data available.