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Novel paradigms to measure variability of behavior in early childhood: posture, gaze, and pupil dilation.

Hepach R, Vaish A, Tomasello M - Front Psychol (2015)

Bottom Line: In one set of studies, children view situations while their eye movements are mapped onto a live scene.In another set of studies, we measured children's emotional expression via changes in their upper-body posture by using depth sensor imaging technology.Together, these paradigms can provide new insights into the internal mechanism and outward emotional expression involved in young children's behavior.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Developmental and Comparative Psychology, Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology Leipzig, Germany.

ABSTRACT
A central challenge of investigating the underlying mechanisms of and the individual differences in young children's behavior is the measurement of the internal physiological mechanism and the involved expressive emotions. Here, we illustrate two paradigms that assess concurrent indicators of both children's social perception as well as their emotional expression. In one set of studies, children view situations while their eye movements are mapped onto a live scene. In these studies, children's internal arousal is measured via changes in their pupil dilation by using eye tracking technology. In another set of studies, we measured children's emotional expression via changes in their upper-body posture by using depth sensor imaging technology. Together, these paradigms can provide new insights into the internal mechanism and outward emotional expression involved in young children's behavior.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

(Left) The average ratings regarding the valence and arousal of children’s expressed affect for the baseline and test trial, separately. The vertical bars represent standard error bars. (Center) The relation between the rated valence of children’s affect and their change in chest height for the test trial. The dashed vertical line represents the value corresponding to the neutral affect coding. Data points for the positive affect realm are highlighted and a regression line is added to illustrate the direction of the association. (Right) The relation between the rated change in children’s affect valence and the change in hip height for the test trial.
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Figure 8: (Left) The average ratings regarding the valence and arousal of children’s expressed affect for the baseline and test trial, separately. The vertical bars represent standard error bars. (Center) The relation between the rated valence of children’s affect and their change in chest height for the test trial. The dashed vertical line represents the value corresponding to the neutral affect coding. Data points for the positive affect realm are highlighted and a regression line is added to illustrate the direction of the association. (Right) The relation between the rated change in children’s affect valence and the change in hip height for the test trial.

Mentions: The results showed that the rated pleasantness of the children’s affect was greater in the test (M = 6.45, SD = 1.66) compared to the baseline (M = 5.83, SD = 1.73) trial, t(41) = 2.24, p = 0.031. On the other hand, there was no difference in the ratings of children’s arousal between the baseline and test trial, t(41) = 1.17, p = 0.25 (see Figure 8). This suggests that the experimental manipulation of attaining a goal for oneself makes children appear to experience more pleasure compared to a baseline level. With regards to the coders’ ratings of children’s affect during the test trial and the change in children’s posture, there was no overall relation between the two variables, ρ(n = 41) = 0.087, p = 0.59. However, very few trials were coded as ‘negative,’ i.e., with a value of less than 5 (17%). When focusing the analyses on the positive affect realm, i.e., ratings from 5 to 9, the degree of children’s experienced affect was positively related to the change in their chest height from the baseline to the test trial. Children with ratings of high positive affect also tended to show a greater increase in upper-body posture, ρ(n = 34) = 0.37, p = 0.03 (see Figure 8). On the other hand there was no such relation with respect to children’s lower-body posture, i.e., the change of hip height, ρ(n = 34) = 0.08, p = 0.67 (see Figure 8). In addition, no statistically significant relations emerged between children’s rated degree of arousal and the change in their chest or hip height, ps > 0.09. Furthermore, the most frequently rated emotion after the experimental manipulation was ‘happy’ (see Table 1 for details) and the most frequent features that coders paid attention to were children’s smile, posture, and gait (see Table 2 for details).


Novel paradigms to measure variability of behavior in early childhood: posture, gaze, and pupil dilation.

Hepach R, Vaish A, Tomasello M - Front Psychol (2015)

(Left) The average ratings regarding the valence and arousal of children’s expressed affect for the baseline and test trial, separately. The vertical bars represent standard error bars. (Center) The relation between the rated valence of children’s affect and their change in chest height for the test trial. The dashed vertical line represents the value corresponding to the neutral affect coding. Data points for the positive affect realm are highlighted and a regression line is added to illustrate the direction of the association. (Right) The relation between the rated change in children’s affect valence and the change in hip height for the test trial.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4496555&req=5

Figure 8: (Left) The average ratings regarding the valence and arousal of children’s expressed affect for the baseline and test trial, separately. The vertical bars represent standard error bars. (Center) The relation between the rated valence of children’s affect and their change in chest height for the test trial. The dashed vertical line represents the value corresponding to the neutral affect coding. Data points for the positive affect realm are highlighted and a regression line is added to illustrate the direction of the association. (Right) The relation between the rated change in children’s affect valence and the change in hip height for the test trial.
Mentions: The results showed that the rated pleasantness of the children’s affect was greater in the test (M = 6.45, SD = 1.66) compared to the baseline (M = 5.83, SD = 1.73) trial, t(41) = 2.24, p = 0.031. On the other hand, there was no difference in the ratings of children’s arousal between the baseline and test trial, t(41) = 1.17, p = 0.25 (see Figure 8). This suggests that the experimental manipulation of attaining a goal for oneself makes children appear to experience more pleasure compared to a baseline level. With regards to the coders’ ratings of children’s affect during the test trial and the change in children’s posture, there was no overall relation between the two variables, ρ(n = 41) = 0.087, p = 0.59. However, very few trials were coded as ‘negative,’ i.e., with a value of less than 5 (17%). When focusing the analyses on the positive affect realm, i.e., ratings from 5 to 9, the degree of children’s experienced affect was positively related to the change in their chest height from the baseline to the test trial. Children with ratings of high positive affect also tended to show a greater increase in upper-body posture, ρ(n = 34) = 0.37, p = 0.03 (see Figure 8). On the other hand there was no such relation with respect to children’s lower-body posture, i.e., the change of hip height, ρ(n = 34) = 0.08, p = 0.67 (see Figure 8). In addition, no statistically significant relations emerged between children’s rated degree of arousal and the change in their chest or hip height, ps > 0.09. Furthermore, the most frequently rated emotion after the experimental manipulation was ‘happy’ (see Table 1 for details) and the most frequent features that coders paid attention to were children’s smile, posture, and gait (see Table 2 for details).

Bottom Line: In one set of studies, children view situations while their eye movements are mapped onto a live scene.In another set of studies, we measured children's emotional expression via changes in their upper-body posture by using depth sensor imaging technology.Together, these paradigms can provide new insights into the internal mechanism and outward emotional expression involved in young children's behavior.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Developmental and Comparative Psychology, Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology Leipzig, Germany.

ABSTRACT
A central challenge of investigating the underlying mechanisms of and the individual differences in young children's behavior is the measurement of the internal physiological mechanism and the involved expressive emotions. Here, we illustrate two paradigms that assess concurrent indicators of both children's social perception as well as their emotional expression. In one set of studies, children view situations while their eye movements are mapped onto a live scene. In these studies, children's internal arousal is measured via changes in their pupil dilation by using eye tracking technology. In another set of studies, we measured children's emotional expression via changes in their upper-body posture by using depth sensor imaging technology. Together, these paradigms can provide new insights into the internal mechanism and outward emotional expression involved in young children's behavior.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus