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Novel paradigms to measure variability of behavior in early childhood: posture, gaze, and pupil dilation.

Hepach R, Vaish A, Tomasello M - Front Psychol (2015)

Bottom Line: In one set of studies, children view situations while their eye movements are mapped onto a live scene.In another set of studies, we measured children's emotional expression via changes in their upper-body posture by using depth sensor imaging technology.Together, these paradigms can provide new insights into the internal mechanism and outward emotional expression involved in young children's behavior.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Developmental and Comparative Psychology, Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology Leipzig, Germany.

ABSTRACT
A central challenge of investigating the underlying mechanisms of and the individual differences in young children's behavior is the measurement of the internal physiological mechanism and the involved expressive emotions. Here, we illustrate two paradigms that assess concurrent indicators of both children's social perception as well as their emotional expression. In one set of studies, children view situations while their eye movements are mapped onto a live scene. In these studies, children's internal arousal is measured via changes in their pupil dilation by using eye tracking technology. In another set of studies, we measured children's emotional expression via changes in their upper-body posture by using depth sensor imaging technology. Together, these paradigms can provide new insights into the internal mechanism and outward emotional expression involved in young children's behavior.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

The time course of the change in pupil size averaged across participants for two measurement time points, baseline and process. For each measurement point two pupillary light reflexes (PLRs) are elicited through presenting a bright stimulus on a dark background at 0 and 5 s, respectively. Upon presentation of the bright stimulus, the pupils constrict and re-dilate after reaching their respective minimum. An algorithm identifies the two minima and calculates the change from baseline to process pupil diameter.
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Figure 3: The time course of the change in pupil size averaged across participants for two measurement time points, baseline and process. For each measurement point two pupillary light reflexes (PLRs) are elicited through presenting a bright stimulus on a dark background at 0 and 5 s, respectively. Upon presentation of the bright stimulus, the pupils constrict and re-dilate after reaching their respective minimum. An algorithm identifies the two minima and calculates the change from baseline to process pupil diameter.

Mentions: During behavioral studies the presentation of visual stimuli on a computer screen causes the pupils to constrict to the luminance properties of an image. We have developed a technique in which we elicit two PLRs in brief succession, i.e., a colorful image flashes twice on the computer screen. The recorded data are exported to a text file and processed using software such as R or Matlab. The exported data need to be pre-processed to remove extreme values (see Hepach et al., 2012, 2013, for filter and interpolation examples). Subsequently, an algorithm identifies the two pupil minima in response to the colorful image and averages both values. The raw value of pupil diameter, i.e., the average minimum, is reflective of individual differences in children’s arousal state. To further capture a change in children’s internal arousal in response to an experimental manipulation, we present the measurement image both before (baseline measure) and after (process measure) the experimental manipulation (e.g., seeing an adult needing help). The change is measured as the percentage increase from baseline to process (see Figure 3).


Novel paradigms to measure variability of behavior in early childhood: posture, gaze, and pupil dilation.

Hepach R, Vaish A, Tomasello M - Front Psychol (2015)

The time course of the change in pupil size averaged across participants for two measurement time points, baseline and process. For each measurement point two pupillary light reflexes (PLRs) are elicited through presenting a bright stimulus on a dark background at 0 and 5 s, respectively. Upon presentation of the bright stimulus, the pupils constrict and re-dilate after reaching their respective minimum. An algorithm identifies the two minima and calculates the change from baseline to process pupil diameter.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4496555&req=5

Figure 3: The time course of the change in pupil size averaged across participants for two measurement time points, baseline and process. For each measurement point two pupillary light reflexes (PLRs) are elicited through presenting a bright stimulus on a dark background at 0 and 5 s, respectively. Upon presentation of the bright stimulus, the pupils constrict and re-dilate after reaching their respective minimum. An algorithm identifies the two minima and calculates the change from baseline to process pupil diameter.
Mentions: During behavioral studies the presentation of visual stimuli on a computer screen causes the pupils to constrict to the luminance properties of an image. We have developed a technique in which we elicit two PLRs in brief succession, i.e., a colorful image flashes twice on the computer screen. The recorded data are exported to a text file and processed using software such as R or Matlab. The exported data need to be pre-processed to remove extreme values (see Hepach et al., 2012, 2013, for filter and interpolation examples). Subsequently, an algorithm identifies the two pupil minima in response to the colorful image and averages both values. The raw value of pupil diameter, i.e., the average minimum, is reflective of individual differences in children’s arousal state. To further capture a change in children’s internal arousal in response to an experimental manipulation, we present the measurement image both before (baseline measure) and after (process measure) the experimental manipulation (e.g., seeing an adult needing help). The change is measured as the percentage increase from baseline to process (see Figure 3).

Bottom Line: In one set of studies, children view situations while their eye movements are mapped onto a live scene.In another set of studies, we measured children's emotional expression via changes in their upper-body posture by using depth sensor imaging technology.Together, these paradigms can provide new insights into the internal mechanism and outward emotional expression involved in young children's behavior.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Developmental and Comparative Psychology, Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology Leipzig, Germany.

ABSTRACT
A central challenge of investigating the underlying mechanisms of and the individual differences in young children's behavior is the measurement of the internal physiological mechanism and the involved expressive emotions. Here, we illustrate two paradigms that assess concurrent indicators of both children's social perception as well as their emotional expression. In one set of studies, children view situations while their eye movements are mapped onto a live scene. In these studies, children's internal arousal is measured via changes in their pupil dilation by using eye tracking technology. In another set of studies, we measured children's emotional expression via changes in their upper-body posture by using depth sensor imaging technology. Together, these paradigms can provide new insights into the internal mechanism and outward emotional expression involved in young children's behavior.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus