Limits...
Novel paradigms to measure variability of behavior in early childhood: posture, gaze, and pupil dilation.

Hepach R, Vaish A, Tomasello M - Front Psychol (2015)

Bottom Line: In one set of studies, children view situations while their eye movements are mapped onto a live scene.In another set of studies, we measured children's emotional expression via changes in their upper-body posture by using depth sensor imaging technology.Together, these paradigms can provide new insights into the internal mechanism and outward emotional expression involved in young children's behavior.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Developmental and Comparative Psychology, Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology Leipzig, Germany.

ABSTRACT
A central challenge of investigating the underlying mechanisms of and the individual differences in young children's behavior is the measurement of the internal physiological mechanism and the involved expressive emotions. Here, we illustrate two paradigms that assess concurrent indicators of both children's social perception as well as their emotional expression. In one set of studies, children view situations while their eye movements are mapped onto a live scene. In these studies, children's internal arousal is measured via changes in their pupil dilation by using eye tracking technology. In another set of studies, we measured children's emotional expression via changes in their upper-body posture by using depth sensor imaging technology. Together, these paradigms can provide new insights into the internal mechanism and outward emotional expression involved in young children's behavior.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Illustration of the scene children view while sitting in front of the apparatus. In the actual studies, children view a camera image of the adult carrying out her task. Since her behavior is never identical across participants, the illustrations here represent prototypical poses during specific phases of the study. The (left) represents the time during which the adult carried out her task, e.g., stacking cans, standing behind the table. The (right) represents the time the adult spent reaching for the dropped object. Each phase can last from a few seconds to several minutes. During that time, the eye tracker records children’s gaze that can be mapped onto the illustrations to identify focal points of attention. The resulting focus maps reveal areas of low (blue) and high (red) attention.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4496555&req=5

Figure 2: Illustration of the scene children view while sitting in front of the apparatus. In the actual studies, children view a camera image of the adult carrying out her task. Since her behavior is never identical across participants, the illustrations here represent prototypical poses during specific phases of the study. The (left) represents the time during which the adult carried out her task, e.g., stacking cans, standing behind the table. The (right) represents the time the adult spent reaching for the dropped object. Each phase can last from a few seconds to several minutes. During that time, the eye tracker records children’s gaze that can be mapped onto the illustrations to identify focal points of attention. The resulting focus maps reveal areas of low (blue) and high (red) attention.

Mentions: While children sit in front of the apparatus, an eye tracker records both their eye movements and changes in pupil dilation (Tobii model X120, SMI models RED and RED-m). The live feed is presented on the computer screen by capturing a video from a USB webcam. The presentation software of the eye tracking system (Tobii Studio with Tobii systems and Experiment Center with SMI) allows both displaying a live video and simultaneously recording eye data at a frequency of at least 60 Hz and uses a standard calibration procedure to map children’s gaze onto the computer screen (Gredebäck et al., 2009). It is furthermore possible to apply the same post-hoc gaze correction techniques suggested for eye tracking experiments (Frank et al., 2012). This allows for children’s gaze to be mapped onto the live scene that they are observing and in turn provides a glimpse into the underlying process guiding their visual attention (see Figure 2). To further match children’s pupillary responses to the live scene, several additional steps are necessary.


Novel paradigms to measure variability of behavior in early childhood: posture, gaze, and pupil dilation.

Hepach R, Vaish A, Tomasello M - Front Psychol (2015)

Illustration of the scene children view while sitting in front of the apparatus. In the actual studies, children view a camera image of the adult carrying out her task. Since her behavior is never identical across participants, the illustrations here represent prototypical poses during specific phases of the study. The (left) represents the time during which the adult carried out her task, e.g., stacking cans, standing behind the table. The (right) represents the time the adult spent reaching for the dropped object. Each phase can last from a few seconds to several minutes. During that time, the eye tracker records children’s gaze that can be mapped onto the illustrations to identify focal points of attention. The resulting focus maps reveal areas of low (blue) and high (red) attention.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4496555&req=5

Figure 2: Illustration of the scene children view while sitting in front of the apparatus. In the actual studies, children view a camera image of the adult carrying out her task. Since her behavior is never identical across participants, the illustrations here represent prototypical poses during specific phases of the study. The (left) represents the time during which the adult carried out her task, e.g., stacking cans, standing behind the table. The (right) represents the time the adult spent reaching for the dropped object. Each phase can last from a few seconds to several minutes. During that time, the eye tracker records children’s gaze that can be mapped onto the illustrations to identify focal points of attention. The resulting focus maps reveal areas of low (blue) and high (red) attention.
Mentions: While children sit in front of the apparatus, an eye tracker records both their eye movements and changes in pupil dilation (Tobii model X120, SMI models RED and RED-m). The live feed is presented on the computer screen by capturing a video from a USB webcam. The presentation software of the eye tracking system (Tobii Studio with Tobii systems and Experiment Center with SMI) allows both displaying a live video and simultaneously recording eye data at a frequency of at least 60 Hz and uses a standard calibration procedure to map children’s gaze onto the computer screen (Gredebäck et al., 2009). It is furthermore possible to apply the same post-hoc gaze correction techniques suggested for eye tracking experiments (Frank et al., 2012). This allows for children’s gaze to be mapped onto the live scene that they are observing and in turn provides a glimpse into the underlying process guiding their visual attention (see Figure 2). To further match children’s pupillary responses to the live scene, several additional steps are necessary.

Bottom Line: In one set of studies, children view situations while their eye movements are mapped onto a live scene.In another set of studies, we measured children's emotional expression via changes in their upper-body posture by using depth sensor imaging technology.Together, these paradigms can provide new insights into the internal mechanism and outward emotional expression involved in young children's behavior.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Developmental and Comparative Psychology, Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology Leipzig, Germany.

ABSTRACT
A central challenge of investigating the underlying mechanisms of and the individual differences in young children's behavior is the measurement of the internal physiological mechanism and the involved expressive emotions. Here, we illustrate two paradigms that assess concurrent indicators of both children's social perception as well as their emotional expression. In one set of studies, children view situations while their eye movements are mapped onto a live scene. In these studies, children's internal arousal is measured via changes in their pupil dilation by using eye tracking technology. In another set of studies, we measured children's emotional expression via changes in their upper-body posture by using depth sensor imaging technology. Together, these paradigms can provide new insights into the internal mechanism and outward emotional expression involved in young children's behavior.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus