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Effect of Epidural Electrical Stimulation and Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation in Rats With Diffuse Traumatic Brain Injury.

Yoon YS, Cho KH, Kim ES, Lee MS, Lee KJ - Ann Rehabil Med (2015)

Bottom Line: SPRT improved significantly from day 8 to day 12 in the ES group and from day 4 to day 14 in the MS group (p<0.05) compared to the sham group.RRT improved significantly from day 6 to day 11 in ES and from day 4 to day 9 in MS compared to the sham group.The ES and MS groups showed increased expression of c-Fos in the cerebral cortex compared to the sham group.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, Presbyterian Medical Center, Seonam University College of Medicine, Jeonju, Korea. ; Department of Medical Device Clinical Trial Center, Presbyterian Medical Center, Jeonju, Korea.

ABSTRACT

Objective: To evaluate the effects of epidural electrical stimulation (EES) and repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) on motor recovery and brain activity in a rat model of diffuse traumatic brain injury (TBI) compared to the control group.

Methods: Thirty rats weighing 270-285 g with diffuse TBI with 45 kg/cm(2) using a weight-drop model were assigned to one of three groups: the EES group (ES) (anodal electrical stimulation at 50 Hz), the rTMS group (MS) (magnetic stimulation at 10 Hz, 3-second stimulation with 6-second intervals, 4,000 total stimulations per day), and the sham-treated control group (sham) (no stimulation). They were pre-trained to perform a single-pellet reaching task (SPRT) and a rotarod test (RRT) for 14 days. Diffuse TBI was then induced and an electrode was implanted over the dominant motor cortex. The changes in SPRT success rate, RRT performance time rate and the expression of c-Fos after two weeks of EES or rTMS were tracked.

Results: SPRT improved significantly from day 8 to day 12 in the ES group and from day 4 to day 14 in the MS group (p<0.05) compared to the sham group. RRT improved significantly from day 6 to day 11 in ES and from day 4 to day 9 in MS compared to the sham group. The ES and MS groups showed increased expression of c-Fos in the cerebral cortex compared to the sham group.

Conclusion: ES or MS in a rat model of diffuse TBI can be used to enhance motor recovery and brain activity.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Immunohistochemistry staining for c-Fos protein in the cerebral cortex of rats with diffuse traumatic brain injuries. The left (stimulation) and the right (non-stimulation) cortex in the ES group (A). The dominant and non-dominant cerebral cortex in the MS group (B) and in the sham group (C). In (A), note the increase in c-Fos expression on both sides, although the increase is more pronounced on the stimulated side, In (B), note the increase in c-Fos expression over the entire cerebral cortex, with the same level of expression on both sides. In (C), there is c-Fos expression on both sides, with much lower expression than in the ES group (A) and the MS group (B). ES, electrical stimulation; MS, magnetic stimulation.
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Figure 5: Immunohistochemistry staining for c-Fos protein in the cerebral cortex of rats with diffuse traumatic brain injuries. The left (stimulation) and the right (non-stimulation) cortex in the ES group (A). The dominant and non-dominant cerebral cortex in the MS group (B) and in the sham group (C). In (A), note the increase in c-Fos expression on both sides, although the increase is more pronounced on the stimulated side, In (B), note the increase in c-Fos expression over the entire cerebral cortex, with the same level of expression on both sides. In (C), there is c-Fos expression on both sides, with much lower expression than in the ES group (A) and the MS group (B). ES, electrical stimulation; MS, magnetic stimulation.

Mentions: All three groups had c-Fos expression in the cerebral cortex where the diffuse brain injury occurred, but the expression was more marked in the ES and the MS groups than in the sham group. c-Fos was expressed on the non-stimulated side in the ES group, though at a lower amount than on the stimulation side. In the MS group, the expression of c-Fos was even on both sides. The expression of c-Fos was much lower in the sham group (Fig. 5).


Effect of Epidural Electrical Stimulation and Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation in Rats With Diffuse Traumatic Brain Injury.

Yoon YS, Cho KH, Kim ES, Lee MS, Lee KJ - Ann Rehabil Med (2015)

Immunohistochemistry staining for c-Fos protein in the cerebral cortex of rats with diffuse traumatic brain injuries. The left (stimulation) and the right (non-stimulation) cortex in the ES group (A). The dominant and non-dominant cerebral cortex in the MS group (B) and in the sham group (C). In (A), note the increase in c-Fos expression on both sides, although the increase is more pronounced on the stimulated side, In (B), note the increase in c-Fos expression over the entire cerebral cortex, with the same level of expression on both sides. In (C), there is c-Fos expression on both sides, with much lower expression than in the ES group (A) and the MS group (B). ES, electrical stimulation; MS, magnetic stimulation.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4496513&req=5

Figure 5: Immunohistochemistry staining for c-Fos protein in the cerebral cortex of rats with diffuse traumatic brain injuries. The left (stimulation) and the right (non-stimulation) cortex in the ES group (A). The dominant and non-dominant cerebral cortex in the MS group (B) and in the sham group (C). In (A), note the increase in c-Fos expression on both sides, although the increase is more pronounced on the stimulated side, In (B), note the increase in c-Fos expression over the entire cerebral cortex, with the same level of expression on both sides. In (C), there is c-Fos expression on both sides, with much lower expression than in the ES group (A) and the MS group (B). ES, electrical stimulation; MS, magnetic stimulation.
Mentions: All three groups had c-Fos expression in the cerebral cortex where the diffuse brain injury occurred, but the expression was more marked in the ES and the MS groups than in the sham group. c-Fos was expressed on the non-stimulated side in the ES group, though at a lower amount than on the stimulation side. In the MS group, the expression of c-Fos was even on both sides. The expression of c-Fos was much lower in the sham group (Fig. 5).

Bottom Line: SPRT improved significantly from day 8 to day 12 in the ES group and from day 4 to day 14 in the MS group (p<0.05) compared to the sham group.RRT improved significantly from day 6 to day 11 in ES and from day 4 to day 9 in MS compared to the sham group.The ES and MS groups showed increased expression of c-Fos in the cerebral cortex compared to the sham group.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, Presbyterian Medical Center, Seonam University College of Medicine, Jeonju, Korea. ; Department of Medical Device Clinical Trial Center, Presbyterian Medical Center, Jeonju, Korea.

ABSTRACT

Objective: To evaluate the effects of epidural electrical stimulation (EES) and repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) on motor recovery and brain activity in a rat model of diffuse traumatic brain injury (TBI) compared to the control group.

Methods: Thirty rats weighing 270-285 g with diffuse TBI with 45 kg/cm(2) using a weight-drop model were assigned to one of three groups: the EES group (ES) (anodal electrical stimulation at 50 Hz), the rTMS group (MS) (magnetic stimulation at 10 Hz, 3-second stimulation with 6-second intervals, 4,000 total stimulations per day), and the sham-treated control group (sham) (no stimulation). They were pre-trained to perform a single-pellet reaching task (SPRT) and a rotarod test (RRT) for 14 days. Diffuse TBI was then induced and an electrode was implanted over the dominant motor cortex. The changes in SPRT success rate, RRT performance time rate and the expression of c-Fos after two weeks of EES or rTMS were tracked.

Results: SPRT improved significantly from day 8 to day 12 in the ES group and from day 4 to day 14 in the MS group (p<0.05) compared to the sham group. RRT improved significantly from day 6 to day 11 in ES and from day 4 to day 9 in MS compared to the sham group. The ES and MS groups showed increased expression of c-Fos in the cerebral cortex compared to the sham group.

Conclusion: ES or MS in a rat model of diffuse TBI can be used to enhance motor recovery and brain activity.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus