Limits...
Effect of Epidural Electrical Stimulation and Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation in Rats With Diffuse Traumatic Brain Injury.

Yoon YS, Cho KH, Kim ES, Lee MS, Lee KJ - Ann Rehabil Med (2015)

Bottom Line: SPRT improved significantly from day 8 to day 12 in the ES group and from day 4 to day 14 in the MS group (p<0.05) compared to the sham group.RRT improved significantly from day 6 to day 11 in ES and from day 4 to day 9 in MS compared to the sham group.The ES and MS groups showed increased expression of c-Fos in the cerebral cortex compared to the sham group.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, Presbyterian Medical Center, Seonam University College of Medicine, Jeonju, Korea. ; Department of Medical Device Clinical Trial Center, Presbyterian Medical Center, Jeonju, Korea.

ABSTRACT

Objective: To evaluate the effects of epidural electrical stimulation (EES) and repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) on motor recovery and brain activity in a rat model of diffuse traumatic brain injury (TBI) compared to the control group.

Methods: Thirty rats weighing 270-285 g with diffuse TBI with 45 kg/cm(2) using a weight-drop model were assigned to one of three groups: the EES group (ES) (anodal electrical stimulation at 50 Hz), the rTMS group (MS) (magnetic stimulation at 10 Hz, 3-second stimulation with 6-second intervals, 4,000 total stimulations per day), and the sham-treated control group (sham) (no stimulation). They were pre-trained to perform a single-pellet reaching task (SPRT) and a rotarod test (RRT) for 14 days. Diffuse TBI was then induced and an electrode was implanted over the dominant motor cortex. The changes in SPRT success rate, RRT performance time rate and the expression of c-Fos after two weeks of EES or rTMS were tracked.

Results: SPRT improved significantly from day 8 to day 12 in the ES group and from day 4 to day 14 in the MS group (p<0.05) compared to the sham group. RRT improved significantly from day 6 to day 11 in ES and from day 4 to day 9 in MS compared to the sham group. The ES and MS groups showed increased expression of c-Fos in the cerebral cortex compared to the sham group.

Conclusion: ES or MS in a rat model of diffuse TBI can be used to enhance motor recovery and brain activity.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Hematoxylin-eosin staining shows the injured area in the left and right hemispheres. In (A), focal hemorrhage (arrows) in the cerebral cortex, deep white matter, base, and necrosis with hygroma (void arrow) can be observed because of diffuse cerebral contusion. (B) shows lots of dead cells that have no nucleus throughout the brain parenchyme in the left (a, ×100) and the right (b, ×100) sides. Red circles indicate the nuclear vacuolation in the brain cell after traumatic brain injury in the dominant (c, ×400) and the non-dominant (d, ×400) sides of the cerebral hemisphere.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4496513&req=5

Figure 4: Hematoxylin-eosin staining shows the injured area in the left and right hemispheres. In (A), focal hemorrhage (arrows) in the cerebral cortex, deep white matter, base, and necrosis with hygroma (void arrow) can be observed because of diffuse cerebral contusion. (B) shows lots of dead cells that have no nucleus throughout the brain parenchyme in the left (a, ×100) and the right (b, ×100) sides. Red circles indicate the nuclear vacuolation in the brain cell after traumatic brain injury in the dominant (c, ×400) and the non-dominant (d, ×400) sides of the cerebral hemisphere.

Mentions: Microscopically, there were varying degrees of hemorrhage, coagulation necrosis, and cystic changes in the necrotic tissue in addition to vacuolization due to neuronal degeneration (Fig. 4).


Effect of Epidural Electrical Stimulation and Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation in Rats With Diffuse Traumatic Brain Injury.

Yoon YS, Cho KH, Kim ES, Lee MS, Lee KJ - Ann Rehabil Med (2015)

Hematoxylin-eosin staining shows the injured area in the left and right hemispheres. In (A), focal hemorrhage (arrows) in the cerebral cortex, deep white matter, base, and necrosis with hygroma (void arrow) can be observed because of diffuse cerebral contusion. (B) shows lots of dead cells that have no nucleus throughout the brain parenchyme in the left (a, ×100) and the right (b, ×100) sides. Red circles indicate the nuclear vacuolation in the brain cell after traumatic brain injury in the dominant (c, ×400) and the non-dominant (d, ×400) sides of the cerebral hemisphere.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4496513&req=5

Figure 4: Hematoxylin-eosin staining shows the injured area in the left and right hemispheres. In (A), focal hemorrhage (arrows) in the cerebral cortex, deep white matter, base, and necrosis with hygroma (void arrow) can be observed because of diffuse cerebral contusion. (B) shows lots of dead cells that have no nucleus throughout the brain parenchyme in the left (a, ×100) and the right (b, ×100) sides. Red circles indicate the nuclear vacuolation in the brain cell after traumatic brain injury in the dominant (c, ×400) and the non-dominant (d, ×400) sides of the cerebral hemisphere.
Mentions: Microscopically, there were varying degrees of hemorrhage, coagulation necrosis, and cystic changes in the necrotic tissue in addition to vacuolization due to neuronal degeneration (Fig. 4).

Bottom Line: SPRT improved significantly from day 8 to day 12 in the ES group and from day 4 to day 14 in the MS group (p<0.05) compared to the sham group.RRT improved significantly from day 6 to day 11 in ES and from day 4 to day 9 in MS compared to the sham group.The ES and MS groups showed increased expression of c-Fos in the cerebral cortex compared to the sham group.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, Presbyterian Medical Center, Seonam University College of Medicine, Jeonju, Korea. ; Department of Medical Device Clinical Trial Center, Presbyterian Medical Center, Jeonju, Korea.

ABSTRACT

Objective: To evaluate the effects of epidural electrical stimulation (EES) and repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) on motor recovery and brain activity in a rat model of diffuse traumatic brain injury (TBI) compared to the control group.

Methods: Thirty rats weighing 270-285 g with diffuse TBI with 45 kg/cm(2) using a weight-drop model were assigned to one of three groups: the EES group (ES) (anodal electrical stimulation at 50 Hz), the rTMS group (MS) (magnetic stimulation at 10 Hz, 3-second stimulation with 6-second intervals, 4,000 total stimulations per day), and the sham-treated control group (sham) (no stimulation). They were pre-trained to perform a single-pellet reaching task (SPRT) and a rotarod test (RRT) for 14 days. Diffuse TBI was then induced and an electrode was implanted over the dominant motor cortex. The changes in SPRT success rate, RRT performance time rate and the expression of c-Fos after two weeks of EES or rTMS were tracked.

Results: SPRT improved significantly from day 8 to day 12 in the ES group and from day 4 to day 14 in the MS group (p<0.05) compared to the sham group. RRT improved significantly from day 6 to day 11 in ES and from day 4 to day 9 in MS compared to the sham group. The ES and MS groups showed increased expression of c-Fos in the cerebral cortex compared to the sham group.

Conclusion: ES or MS in a rat model of diffuse TBI can be used to enhance motor recovery and brain activity.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus