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Effect of Epidural Electrical Stimulation and Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation in Rats With Diffuse Traumatic Brain Injury.

Yoon YS, Cho KH, Kim ES, Lee MS, Lee KJ - Ann Rehabil Med (2015)

Bottom Line: SPRT improved significantly from day 8 to day 12 in the ES group and from day 4 to day 14 in the MS group (p<0.05) compared to the sham group.RRT improved significantly from day 6 to day 11 in ES and from day 4 to day 9 in MS compared to the sham group.The ES and MS groups showed increased expression of c-Fos in the cerebral cortex compared to the sham group.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, Presbyterian Medical Center, Seonam University College of Medicine, Jeonju, Korea. ; Department of Medical Device Clinical Trial Center, Presbyterian Medical Center, Jeonju, Korea.

ABSTRACT

Objective: To evaluate the effects of epidural electrical stimulation (EES) and repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) on motor recovery and brain activity in a rat model of diffuse traumatic brain injury (TBI) compared to the control group.

Methods: Thirty rats weighing 270-285 g with diffuse TBI with 45 kg/cm(2) using a weight-drop model were assigned to one of three groups: the EES group (ES) (anodal electrical stimulation at 50 Hz), the rTMS group (MS) (magnetic stimulation at 10 Hz, 3-second stimulation with 6-second intervals, 4,000 total stimulations per day), and the sham-treated control group (sham) (no stimulation). They were pre-trained to perform a single-pellet reaching task (SPRT) and a rotarod test (RRT) for 14 days. Diffuse TBI was then induced and an electrode was implanted over the dominant motor cortex. The changes in SPRT success rate, RRT performance time rate and the expression of c-Fos after two weeks of EES or rTMS were tracked.

Results: SPRT improved significantly from day 8 to day 12 in the ES group and from day 4 to day 14 in the MS group (p<0.05) compared to the sham group. RRT improved significantly from day 6 to day 11 in ES and from day 4 to day 9 in MS compared to the sham group. The ES and MS groups showed increased expression of c-Fos in the cerebral cortex compared to the sham group.

Conclusion: ES or MS in a rat model of diffuse TBI can be used to enhance motor recovery and brain activity.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

The average time for the rotarod test (RRT) in the ES, MS, and sham groups. The average time for RRT in the ES group was significantly longer than in the sham group from day 6 to day 11, while that of the MS group was significantly longer than that of the sham group from day 4 to day 9. The MS group showed a more significant increase in average RRT time compared to the other two groups on day 4, whereas the ES group showed a more significant increase than the other two groups between day 8 and day 10. a)p<0.05 by one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) with post-hoc comparison between the ES and sham group, b)p<0.05 by one-way ANOVA with post-hoc comparison between the MS and sham group. ES, electrical stimulation; MS, magnetic stimulation; Op, operation; POD, postoperative day.
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Figure 3: The average time for the rotarod test (RRT) in the ES, MS, and sham groups. The average time for RRT in the ES group was significantly longer than in the sham group from day 6 to day 11, while that of the MS group was significantly longer than that of the sham group from day 4 to day 9. The MS group showed a more significant increase in average RRT time compared to the other two groups on day 4, whereas the ES group showed a more significant increase than the other two groups between day 8 and day 10. a)p<0.05 by one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) with post-hoc comparison between the ES and sham group, b)p<0.05 by one-way ANOVA with post-hoc comparison between the MS and sham group. ES, electrical stimulation; MS, magnetic stimulation; Op, operation; POD, postoperative day.

Mentions: Prior to the onset of TBI, there were no significant differences in the time rate for RRT between the three groups (p>0.05). The RRT performance time rate increased significantly in the ES and MS groups compared to the sham group (p<0.05, repeated measures ANOVA). In the ES group, the time rate was significantly longer compared with the sham group between POD 6 and 11 (p<0.05). The time rate for the ES group was significantly longer than that of both groups between POD 8 and 10 (p<0.05). In the MS group, the time rate was significantly longer compared with the sham group between POD 4 and 9 (p<0.05) and was longer than the other two groups on POD 4 (p<0.05). On POD 14, however, there was no significant difference between the three groups (p>0.05) (Fig. 3).


Effect of Epidural Electrical Stimulation and Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation in Rats With Diffuse Traumatic Brain Injury.

Yoon YS, Cho KH, Kim ES, Lee MS, Lee KJ - Ann Rehabil Med (2015)

The average time for the rotarod test (RRT) in the ES, MS, and sham groups. The average time for RRT in the ES group was significantly longer than in the sham group from day 6 to day 11, while that of the MS group was significantly longer than that of the sham group from day 4 to day 9. The MS group showed a more significant increase in average RRT time compared to the other two groups on day 4, whereas the ES group showed a more significant increase than the other two groups between day 8 and day 10. a)p<0.05 by one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) with post-hoc comparison between the ES and sham group, b)p<0.05 by one-way ANOVA with post-hoc comparison between the MS and sham group. ES, electrical stimulation; MS, magnetic stimulation; Op, operation; POD, postoperative day.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4496513&req=5

Figure 3: The average time for the rotarod test (RRT) in the ES, MS, and sham groups. The average time for RRT in the ES group was significantly longer than in the sham group from day 6 to day 11, while that of the MS group was significantly longer than that of the sham group from day 4 to day 9. The MS group showed a more significant increase in average RRT time compared to the other two groups on day 4, whereas the ES group showed a more significant increase than the other two groups between day 8 and day 10. a)p<0.05 by one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) with post-hoc comparison between the ES and sham group, b)p<0.05 by one-way ANOVA with post-hoc comparison between the MS and sham group. ES, electrical stimulation; MS, magnetic stimulation; Op, operation; POD, postoperative day.
Mentions: Prior to the onset of TBI, there were no significant differences in the time rate for RRT between the three groups (p>0.05). The RRT performance time rate increased significantly in the ES and MS groups compared to the sham group (p<0.05, repeated measures ANOVA). In the ES group, the time rate was significantly longer compared with the sham group between POD 6 and 11 (p<0.05). The time rate for the ES group was significantly longer than that of both groups between POD 8 and 10 (p<0.05). In the MS group, the time rate was significantly longer compared with the sham group between POD 4 and 9 (p<0.05) and was longer than the other two groups on POD 4 (p<0.05). On POD 14, however, there was no significant difference between the three groups (p>0.05) (Fig. 3).

Bottom Line: SPRT improved significantly from day 8 to day 12 in the ES group and from day 4 to day 14 in the MS group (p<0.05) compared to the sham group.RRT improved significantly from day 6 to day 11 in ES and from day 4 to day 9 in MS compared to the sham group.The ES and MS groups showed increased expression of c-Fos in the cerebral cortex compared to the sham group.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, Presbyterian Medical Center, Seonam University College of Medicine, Jeonju, Korea. ; Department of Medical Device Clinical Trial Center, Presbyterian Medical Center, Jeonju, Korea.

ABSTRACT

Objective: To evaluate the effects of epidural electrical stimulation (EES) and repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) on motor recovery and brain activity in a rat model of diffuse traumatic brain injury (TBI) compared to the control group.

Methods: Thirty rats weighing 270-285 g with diffuse TBI with 45 kg/cm(2) using a weight-drop model were assigned to one of three groups: the EES group (ES) (anodal electrical stimulation at 50 Hz), the rTMS group (MS) (magnetic stimulation at 10 Hz, 3-second stimulation with 6-second intervals, 4,000 total stimulations per day), and the sham-treated control group (sham) (no stimulation). They were pre-trained to perform a single-pellet reaching task (SPRT) and a rotarod test (RRT) for 14 days. Diffuse TBI was then induced and an electrode was implanted over the dominant motor cortex. The changes in SPRT success rate, RRT performance time rate and the expression of c-Fos after two weeks of EES or rTMS were tracked.

Results: SPRT improved significantly from day 8 to day 12 in the ES group and from day 4 to day 14 in the MS group (p<0.05) compared to the sham group. RRT improved significantly from day 6 to day 11 in ES and from day 4 to day 9 in MS compared to the sham group. The ES and MS groups showed increased expression of c-Fos in the cerebral cortex compared to the sham group.

Conclusion: ES or MS in a rat model of diffuse TBI can be used to enhance motor recovery and brain activity.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus