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Effect of Epidural Electrical Stimulation and Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation in Rats With Diffuse Traumatic Brain Injury.

Yoon YS, Cho KH, Kim ES, Lee MS, Lee KJ - Ann Rehabil Med (2015)

Bottom Line: SPRT improved significantly from day 8 to day 12 in the ES group and from day 4 to day 14 in the MS group (p<0.05) compared to the sham group.RRT improved significantly from day 6 to day 11 in ES and from day 4 to day 9 in MS compared to the sham group.The ES and MS groups showed increased expression of c-Fos in the cerebral cortex compared to the sham group.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, Presbyterian Medical Center, Seonam University College of Medicine, Jeonju, Korea. ; Department of Medical Device Clinical Trial Center, Presbyterian Medical Center, Jeonju, Korea.

ABSTRACT

Objective: To evaluate the effects of epidural electrical stimulation (EES) and repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) on motor recovery and brain activity in a rat model of diffuse traumatic brain injury (TBI) compared to the control group.

Methods: Thirty rats weighing 270-285 g with diffuse TBI with 45 kg/cm(2) using a weight-drop model were assigned to one of three groups: the EES group (ES) (anodal electrical stimulation at 50 Hz), the rTMS group (MS) (magnetic stimulation at 10 Hz, 3-second stimulation with 6-second intervals, 4,000 total stimulations per day), and the sham-treated control group (sham) (no stimulation). They were pre-trained to perform a single-pellet reaching task (SPRT) and a rotarod test (RRT) for 14 days. Diffuse TBI was then induced and an electrode was implanted over the dominant motor cortex. The changes in SPRT success rate, RRT performance time rate and the expression of c-Fos after two weeks of EES or rTMS were tracked.

Results: SPRT improved significantly from day 8 to day 12 in the ES group and from day 4 to day 14 in the MS group (p<0.05) compared to the sham group. RRT improved significantly from day 6 to day 11 in ES and from day 4 to day 9 in MS compared to the sham group. The ES and MS groups showed increased expression of c-Fos in the cerebral cortex compared to the sham group.

Conclusion: ES or MS in a rat model of diffuse TBI can be used to enhance motor recovery and brain activity.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

The success rates of the single-pellet reaching task (SPRT) in the ES, MS, and sham groups. The success rate of the ES group was significantly higher between day 8 and day 12 while that of the MS group was significantly higher from day 4 to day 14. Note that the success rate of SPRT in the MS group increased significantly compared to the other two groups between day 4 and day 5. a)p<0.05 by one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) with post-hoc comparison between the ES and sham groups, b)p<0.05 by one-way ANOVA with post-hoc comparison between the MS and sham groups. ES, electrical stimulation; MS, magnetic stimulation; Op, operation; POD, postoperative day.
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Figure 2: The success rates of the single-pellet reaching task (SPRT) in the ES, MS, and sham groups. The success rate of the ES group was significantly higher between day 8 and day 12 while that of the MS group was significantly higher from day 4 to day 14. Note that the success rate of SPRT in the MS group increased significantly compared to the other two groups between day 4 and day 5. a)p<0.05 by one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) with post-hoc comparison between the ES and sham groups, b)p<0.05 by one-way ANOVA with post-hoc comparison between the MS and sham groups. ES, electrical stimulation; MS, magnetic stimulation; Op, operation; POD, postoperative day.

Mentions: Prior to the onset of TBI, there were no significant differences in mean SPRT success rates between the three groups (p>0.05). All three groups had 0 points until postoperative day (POD) 3. The SPRT success rate increased significantly in the ES and MS groups compared to the sham group (p<0.05, repeated measures ANOVA). Between POD 8 and 12, SPRT success rate was significantly higher in the ES group than in the sham group (p<0.05). In the MS group, the improvement in the SPRT success rate was significantly higher between postoperative days 4 and 14 (p<0.05). Particularly in the MS group, as compared with the other two groups, the change in the success rate reached statistical significance on both POD 4 and 5 (p<0.05) (Fig. 2).


Effect of Epidural Electrical Stimulation and Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation in Rats With Diffuse Traumatic Brain Injury.

Yoon YS, Cho KH, Kim ES, Lee MS, Lee KJ - Ann Rehabil Med (2015)

The success rates of the single-pellet reaching task (SPRT) in the ES, MS, and sham groups. The success rate of the ES group was significantly higher between day 8 and day 12 while that of the MS group was significantly higher from day 4 to day 14. Note that the success rate of SPRT in the MS group increased significantly compared to the other two groups between day 4 and day 5. a)p<0.05 by one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) with post-hoc comparison between the ES and sham groups, b)p<0.05 by one-way ANOVA with post-hoc comparison between the MS and sham groups. ES, electrical stimulation; MS, magnetic stimulation; Op, operation; POD, postoperative day.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4496513&req=5

Figure 2: The success rates of the single-pellet reaching task (SPRT) in the ES, MS, and sham groups. The success rate of the ES group was significantly higher between day 8 and day 12 while that of the MS group was significantly higher from day 4 to day 14. Note that the success rate of SPRT in the MS group increased significantly compared to the other two groups between day 4 and day 5. a)p<0.05 by one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) with post-hoc comparison between the ES and sham groups, b)p<0.05 by one-way ANOVA with post-hoc comparison between the MS and sham groups. ES, electrical stimulation; MS, magnetic stimulation; Op, operation; POD, postoperative day.
Mentions: Prior to the onset of TBI, there were no significant differences in mean SPRT success rates between the three groups (p>0.05). All three groups had 0 points until postoperative day (POD) 3. The SPRT success rate increased significantly in the ES and MS groups compared to the sham group (p<0.05, repeated measures ANOVA). Between POD 8 and 12, SPRT success rate was significantly higher in the ES group than in the sham group (p<0.05). In the MS group, the improvement in the SPRT success rate was significantly higher between postoperative days 4 and 14 (p<0.05). Particularly in the MS group, as compared with the other two groups, the change in the success rate reached statistical significance on both POD 4 and 5 (p<0.05) (Fig. 2).

Bottom Line: SPRT improved significantly from day 8 to day 12 in the ES group and from day 4 to day 14 in the MS group (p<0.05) compared to the sham group.RRT improved significantly from day 6 to day 11 in ES and from day 4 to day 9 in MS compared to the sham group.The ES and MS groups showed increased expression of c-Fos in the cerebral cortex compared to the sham group.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, Presbyterian Medical Center, Seonam University College of Medicine, Jeonju, Korea. ; Department of Medical Device Clinical Trial Center, Presbyterian Medical Center, Jeonju, Korea.

ABSTRACT

Objective: To evaluate the effects of epidural electrical stimulation (EES) and repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) on motor recovery and brain activity in a rat model of diffuse traumatic brain injury (TBI) compared to the control group.

Methods: Thirty rats weighing 270-285 g with diffuse TBI with 45 kg/cm(2) using a weight-drop model were assigned to one of three groups: the EES group (ES) (anodal electrical stimulation at 50 Hz), the rTMS group (MS) (magnetic stimulation at 10 Hz, 3-second stimulation with 6-second intervals, 4,000 total stimulations per day), and the sham-treated control group (sham) (no stimulation). They were pre-trained to perform a single-pellet reaching task (SPRT) and a rotarod test (RRT) for 14 days. Diffuse TBI was then induced and an electrode was implanted over the dominant motor cortex. The changes in SPRT success rate, RRT performance time rate and the expression of c-Fos after two weeks of EES or rTMS were tracked.

Results: SPRT improved significantly from day 8 to day 12 in the ES group and from day 4 to day 14 in the MS group (p<0.05) compared to the sham group. RRT improved significantly from day 6 to day 11 in ES and from day 4 to day 9 in MS compared to the sham group. The ES and MS groups showed increased expression of c-Fos in the cerebral cortex compared to the sham group.

Conclusion: ES or MS in a rat model of diffuse TBI can be used to enhance motor recovery and brain activity.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus