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Cyanobacteria: Photoautotrophic Microbial Factories for the Sustainable Synthesis of Industrial Products.

Lau NS, Matsui M, Abdullah AA - Biomed Res Int (2015)

Bottom Line: Equipped with the ability to degrade environmental pollutants and remove heavy metals, cyanobacteria are promising tools for bioremediation and wastewater treatment.Cyanobacteria are characterized by the ability to produce a spectrum of bioactive compounds with antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, and antialgal properties that are of pharmaceutical and agricultural significance.Several strains of cyanobacteria are also sources of high-value chemicals, for example, pigments, vitamins, and enzymes.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Centre for Chemical Biology, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11900 Bayan Lepas, Penang, Malaysia.

ABSTRACT
Cyanobacteria are widely distributed Gram-negative bacteria with a long evolutionary history and the only prokaryotes that perform plant-like oxygenic photosynthesis. Cyanobacteria possess several advantages as hosts for biotechnological applications, including simple growth requirements, ease of genetic manipulation, and attractive platforms for carbon neutral production process. The use of photosynthetic cyanobacteria to directly convert carbon dioxide to biofuels is an emerging area of interest. Equipped with the ability to degrade environmental pollutants and remove heavy metals, cyanobacteria are promising tools for bioremediation and wastewater treatment. Cyanobacteria are characterized by the ability to produce a spectrum of bioactive compounds with antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, and antialgal properties that are of pharmaceutical and agricultural significance. Several strains of cyanobacteria are also sources of high-value chemicals, for example, pigments, vitamins, and enzymes. Recent advances in biotechnological approaches have facilitated researches directed towards maximizing the production of desired products in cyanobacteria and realizing the potential of these bacteria for various industrial applications. In this review, the potential of cyanobacteria as sources of energy, bioactive compounds, high-value chemicals, and tools for aquatic bioremediation and recent progress in engineering cyanobacteria for these bioindustrial applications are discussed.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

A schematic representation of biochemical pathways for various industrial products synthesis in cyanobacteria. 3-PGA, 3-phosphoglycerate; aar, aldehyde decarbonylase; adc, alcohol dehydrogenase; alsS, acetolactate synthase; F6P, fructose-6-phosphate; FNR, ferredoxin NADP+ reductase; G6P, glucose-6-phosphate; HydA, [FeFe] hydrogenase; ilvD, dihydroxy-acid dehydratase; ilvC, acetohydroxy acid isomeroreductase; pdc, pyruvate decarboxylase; PEP, phosphoenolpyruvate; PHB, polyhydroxybutyrate.
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fig1: A schematic representation of biochemical pathways for various industrial products synthesis in cyanobacteria. 3-PGA, 3-phosphoglycerate; aar, aldehyde decarbonylase; adc, alcohol dehydrogenase; alsS, acetolactate synthase; F6P, fructose-6-phosphate; FNR, ferredoxin NADP+ reductase; G6P, glucose-6-phosphate; HydA, [FeFe] hydrogenase; ilvD, dihydroxy-acid dehydratase; ilvC, acetohydroxy acid isomeroreductase; pdc, pyruvate decarboxylase; PEP, phosphoenolpyruvate; PHB, polyhydroxybutyrate.

Mentions: The production of ethanol via biological route has received widespread attention in recent years. Traditionally a two-step route to first collect plant-derived biomass and subsequent conversion of the biomass to fuels by microbial fermentation is employed [30]. This indirect production scheme is inefficient in the conversion of biomass to fuels [31] and thus there are increasing interests in the use of photosynthetic microbes to directly convert carbon dioxide to fuels. Although some cyanobacterial strains naturally produce low level of ethanol as a byproduct of natural fermentation, it is necessary to enhance the production efficiency of cyanobacteria to reach an economically viable level. An attempt to introduce the pyruvate decarboxylase (pdc) and alcohol dehydrogenase II (adh) genes from Zymomonas mobilis into the chromosome of Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 was reported [11] (Figure 1). Photosynthetic production of up to 550 mg/L ethanol was achieved in the engineered Synechocystis sp. [32]. Further engineering of Synechocystis sp. by overexpressing endogenous alcohol dehydrogenase and disrupting polyhydroxyalkanoate biosynthetic pathway increased ethanol production up to 5500 mg/L [12] (Table 1). Isobutanol and 1-butanol are considered as better substitutes for gasoline compared to ethanol as they have greater energy density, being less corrosive and less volatile [33]. Using a similar genetic modification approach, direct photosynthetic production of isobutanol in cyanobacteria is also feasible. The introduction of an artificial isobutanol biosynthesis pathway into Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942 had resulted in the production of isobutyraldehyde and isobutanol up to 1100 and 450 mg/L, respectively [13].


Cyanobacteria: Photoautotrophic Microbial Factories for the Sustainable Synthesis of Industrial Products.

Lau NS, Matsui M, Abdullah AA - Biomed Res Int (2015)

A schematic representation of biochemical pathways for various industrial products synthesis in cyanobacteria. 3-PGA, 3-phosphoglycerate; aar, aldehyde decarbonylase; adc, alcohol dehydrogenase; alsS, acetolactate synthase; F6P, fructose-6-phosphate; FNR, ferredoxin NADP+ reductase; G6P, glucose-6-phosphate; HydA, [FeFe] hydrogenase; ilvD, dihydroxy-acid dehydratase; ilvC, acetohydroxy acid isomeroreductase; pdc, pyruvate decarboxylase; PEP, phosphoenolpyruvate; PHB, polyhydroxybutyrate.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

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Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4496466&req=5

fig1: A schematic representation of biochemical pathways for various industrial products synthesis in cyanobacteria. 3-PGA, 3-phosphoglycerate; aar, aldehyde decarbonylase; adc, alcohol dehydrogenase; alsS, acetolactate synthase; F6P, fructose-6-phosphate; FNR, ferredoxin NADP+ reductase; G6P, glucose-6-phosphate; HydA, [FeFe] hydrogenase; ilvD, dihydroxy-acid dehydratase; ilvC, acetohydroxy acid isomeroreductase; pdc, pyruvate decarboxylase; PEP, phosphoenolpyruvate; PHB, polyhydroxybutyrate.
Mentions: The production of ethanol via biological route has received widespread attention in recent years. Traditionally a two-step route to first collect plant-derived biomass and subsequent conversion of the biomass to fuels by microbial fermentation is employed [30]. This indirect production scheme is inefficient in the conversion of biomass to fuels [31] and thus there are increasing interests in the use of photosynthetic microbes to directly convert carbon dioxide to fuels. Although some cyanobacterial strains naturally produce low level of ethanol as a byproduct of natural fermentation, it is necessary to enhance the production efficiency of cyanobacteria to reach an economically viable level. An attempt to introduce the pyruvate decarboxylase (pdc) and alcohol dehydrogenase II (adh) genes from Zymomonas mobilis into the chromosome of Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 was reported [11] (Figure 1). Photosynthetic production of up to 550 mg/L ethanol was achieved in the engineered Synechocystis sp. [32]. Further engineering of Synechocystis sp. by overexpressing endogenous alcohol dehydrogenase and disrupting polyhydroxyalkanoate biosynthetic pathway increased ethanol production up to 5500 mg/L [12] (Table 1). Isobutanol and 1-butanol are considered as better substitutes for gasoline compared to ethanol as they have greater energy density, being less corrosive and less volatile [33]. Using a similar genetic modification approach, direct photosynthetic production of isobutanol in cyanobacteria is also feasible. The introduction of an artificial isobutanol biosynthesis pathway into Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942 had resulted in the production of isobutyraldehyde and isobutanol up to 1100 and 450 mg/L, respectively [13].

Bottom Line: Equipped with the ability to degrade environmental pollutants and remove heavy metals, cyanobacteria are promising tools for bioremediation and wastewater treatment.Cyanobacteria are characterized by the ability to produce a spectrum of bioactive compounds with antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, and antialgal properties that are of pharmaceutical and agricultural significance.Several strains of cyanobacteria are also sources of high-value chemicals, for example, pigments, vitamins, and enzymes.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Centre for Chemical Biology, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11900 Bayan Lepas, Penang, Malaysia.

ABSTRACT
Cyanobacteria are widely distributed Gram-negative bacteria with a long evolutionary history and the only prokaryotes that perform plant-like oxygenic photosynthesis. Cyanobacteria possess several advantages as hosts for biotechnological applications, including simple growth requirements, ease of genetic manipulation, and attractive platforms for carbon neutral production process. The use of photosynthetic cyanobacteria to directly convert carbon dioxide to biofuels is an emerging area of interest. Equipped with the ability to degrade environmental pollutants and remove heavy metals, cyanobacteria are promising tools for bioremediation and wastewater treatment. Cyanobacteria are characterized by the ability to produce a spectrum of bioactive compounds with antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, and antialgal properties that are of pharmaceutical and agricultural significance. Several strains of cyanobacteria are also sources of high-value chemicals, for example, pigments, vitamins, and enzymes. Recent advances in biotechnological approaches have facilitated researches directed towards maximizing the production of desired products in cyanobacteria and realizing the potential of these bacteria for various industrial applications. In this review, the potential of cyanobacteria as sources of energy, bioactive compounds, high-value chemicals, and tools for aquatic bioremediation and recent progress in engineering cyanobacteria for these bioindustrial applications are discussed.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus