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Size matters at deep-sea hydrothermal vents: different diversity and habitat fidelity patterns of meio- and macrofauna.

Gollner S, Govenar B, Fisher CR, Bright M - Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. (2015)

Bottom Line: We compared patterns of diversity and community structure for meio- and macrofaunal communities sampled along a gradient of environmental stress at deep-sea hydrothermal vents on the East Pacific Rise (9° 50' N) and neighboring basalt habitats.The habitat fidelity patterns also differed: macrofaunal species occurred primarily at vents and were generally restricted to this habitat, but meiofaunal species were distributed more evenly across proximate and distant basalt habitats and were thus not restricted to vent habitats.Over evolutionary time scales these contrasting patterns are likely driven by distinct reproduction strategies and food demands inherent to fauna of different sizes.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Marine Biology, University of Vienna, Althanstrasse 14, 1090 Vienna, Austria ; German Center for Marine Biodiversity Research (DZMB), Senckenberg am Meer, Am Südstrand 44, 26382 Wilhelmshaven, Germany ; Royal Netherlands Institute for Sea Research (NIOZ), Ecosystem Studies, Korringaweg 7, 4401 NT Yerseke, The Netherlands.

ABSTRACT

Species with markedly different sizes interact when sharing the same habitat. Unravelling mechanisms that control diversity thus requires consideration of a range of size classes. We compared patterns of diversity and community structure for meio- and macrofaunal communities sampled along a gradient of environmental stress at deep-sea hydrothermal vents on the East Pacific Rise (9° 50' N) and neighboring basalt habitats. Both meio- and macrofaunal species richnesses were lowest in the high-stress vent habitat, but macrofaunal richness was highest among intermediate-stress vent habitats. Meiofaunal species richness was negatively correlated with stress, and highest on the basalt. In these deep-sea basalt habitats surrounding hydrothermal vents, meiofaunal species richness was consistently higher than that of macrofauna. Consideration of the physiological capabilities and life history traits of different-sized animals suggests that different patterns of diversity may be caused by different capabilities to deal with environmental stress in the 2 size classes. In contrast to meiofauna, adaptations of macrofauna may have evolved to allow them to maintain their physiological homeostasis in a variety of hydrothermal vent habitats and exploit this food-rich deep-sea environment in high abundances. The habitat fidelity patterns also differed: macrofaunal species occurred primarily at vents and were generally restricted to this habitat, but meiofaunal species were distributed more evenly across proximate and distant basalt habitats and were thus not restricted to vent habitats. Over evolutionary time scales these contrasting patterns are likely driven by distinct reproduction strategies and food demands inherent to fauna of different sizes.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

A schematic of the habitat types sampled, and the gradient of high temperatures and more concentrated vent fluids (‘vent regime’) from the Pompeii worm habitat to bare basalt. Box-and-whisker plots show observed species richness (Sobs) and species richness at a sample size of 300 ind. (Sm300) for meiofauna (white boxes) and macrofauna (grey boxes). Black square: mean; box: SE; whiskers: SD. Significant differences (p < 0.05) between meiofauna and macrofauna within a habitat are indicated by *. Letters shared in common between habitats indicate no significant differences for meiofauna (lowercase letters) and macrofauna (uppercase letters) separately
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Figure 1: A schematic of the habitat types sampled, and the gradient of high temperatures and more concentrated vent fluids (‘vent regime’) from the Pompeii worm habitat to bare basalt. Box-and-whisker plots show observed species richness (Sobs) and species richness at a sample size of 300 ind. (Sm300) for meiofauna (white boxes) and macrofauna (grey boxes). Black square: mean; box: SE; whiskers: SD. Significant differences (p < 0.05) between meiofauna and macrofauna within a habitat are indicated by *. Letters shared in common between habitats indicate no significant differences for meiofauna (lowercase letters) and macrofauna (uppercase letters) separately

Mentions: To account for differences in sampling methods, we also standardized species richness to sample area and sampling effort (Chao & Jost 2012) to compare across habitats. Species richness (Sobs, Sm300, SCm0.98) and Shannon diversity for meiofauna increased significantly from Pompeii worm habitats (e.g. mean [±SD] Sm300: 5 ± 1), to tubeworm (Sm300: 14 ± 4) and mussel habitats (Sm300: 27 ± 2). SCm0.98 and the total number of species collected was highest from the proximate basalt (Stot: 64; SCm0.98: 43 ± 16), but Sobs, Sm300, and Shannon diversity were similar between the mussel and the basalt habitats. Macrofaunal species richness (Sobs, Sm300, SCm0.98) and Shannon diversity index were significantly lower at the Pompeii worm habitat (e.g. Sm300: 6 ± 3) than at the tubeworm (Sm300: 14 ± 3) and mussel (Sm300: 12 ± 4) habitats. In contrast to the proximate basalt meiofauna, macrofaunal richness was low but variable (Sm300: 11 ± 6) with ranges similar to Pompeii worm, tubeworm and mussel habitats. Interestingly, when considering only macrofauna >1 mm (i.e. adults), observed species richness values on basalt were extremely low (mean Sobs: 2) (Fig. 1, Tables 2 & S3).


Size matters at deep-sea hydrothermal vents: different diversity and habitat fidelity patterns of meio- and macrofauna.

Gollner S, Govenar B, Fisher CR, Bright M - Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. (2015)

A schematic of the habitat types sampled, and the gradient of high temperatures and more concentrated vent fluids (‘vent regime’) from the Pompeii worm habitat to bare basalt. Box-and-whisker plots show observed species richness (Sobs) and species richness at a sample size of 300 ind. (Sm300) for meiofauna (white boxes) and macrofauna (grey boxes). Black square: mean; box: SE; whiskers: SD. Significant differences (p < 0.05) between meiofauna and macrofauna within a habitat are indicated by *. Letters shared in common between habitats indicate no significant differences for meiofauna (lowercase letters) and macrofauna (uppercase letters) separately
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4496463&req=5

Figure 1: A schematic of the habitat types sampled, and the gradient of high temperatures and more concentrated vent fluids (‘vent regime’) from the Pompeii worm habitat to bare basalt. Box-and-whisker plots show observed species richness (Sobs) and species richness at a sample size of 300 ind. (Sm300) for meiofauna (white boxes) and macrofauna (grey boxes). Black square: mean; box: SE; whiskers: SD. Significant differences (p < 0.05) between meiofauna and macrofauna within a habitat are indicated by *. Letters shared in common between habitats indicate no significant differences for meiofauna (lowercase letters) and macrofauna (uppercase letters) separately
Mentions: To account for differences in sampling methods, we also standardized species richness to sample area and sampling effort (Chao & Jost 2012) to compare across habitats. Species richness (Sobs, Sm300, SCm0.98) and Shannon diversity for meiofauna increased significantly from Pompeii worm habitats (e.g. mean [±SD] Sm300: 5 ± 1), to tubeworm (Sm300: 14 ± 4) and mussel habitats (Sm300: 27 ± 2). SCm0.98 and the total number of species collected was highest from the proximate basalt (Stot: 64; SCm0.98: 43 ± 16), but Sobs, Sm300, and Shannon diversity were similar between the mussel and the basalt habitats. Macrofaunal species richness (Sobs, Sm300, SCm0.98) and Shannon diversity index were significantly lower at the Pompeii worm habitat (e.g. Sm300: 6 ± 3) than at the tubeworm (Sm300: 14 ± 3) and mussel (Sm300: 12 ± 4) habitats. In contrast to the proximate basalt meiofauna, macrofaunal richness was low but variable (Sm300: 11 ± 6) with ranges similar to Pompeii worm, tubeworm and mussel habitats. Interestingly, when considering only macrofauna >1 mm (i.e. adults), observed species richness values on basalt were extremely low (mean Sobs: 2) (Fig. 1, Tables 2 & S3).

Bottom Line: We compared patterns of diversity and community structure for meio- and macrofaunal communities sampled along a gradient of environmental stress at deep-sea hydrothermal vents on the East Pacific Rise (9° 50' N) and neighboring basalt habitats.The habitat fidelity patterns also differed: macrofaunal species occurred primarily at vents and were generally restricted to this habitat, but meiofaunal species were distributed more evenly across proximate and distant basalt habitats and were thus not restricted to vent habitats.Over evolutionary time scales these contrasting patterns are likely driven by distinct reproduction strategies and food demands inherent to fauna of different sizes.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Marine Biology, University of Vienna, Althanstrasse 14, 1090 Vienna, Austria ; German Center for Marine Biodiversity Research (DZMB), Senckenberg am Meer, Am Südstrand 44, 26382 Wilhelmshaven, Germany ; Royal Netherlands Institute for Sea Research (NIOZ), Ecosystem Studies, Korringaweg 7, 4401 NT Yerseke, The Netherlands.

ABSTRACT

Species with markedly different sizes interact when sharing the same habitat. Unravelling mechanisms that control diversity thus requires consideration of a range of size classes. We compared patterns of diversity and community structure for meio- and macrofaunal communities sampled along a gradient of environmental stress at deep-sea hydrothermal vents on the East Pacific Rise (9° 50' N) and neighboring basalt habitats. Both meio- and macrofaunal species richnesses were lowest in the high-stress vent habitat, but macrofaunal richness was highest among intermediate-stress vent habitats. Meiofaunal species richness was negatively correlated with stress, and highest on the basalt. In these deep-sea basalt habitats surrounding hydrothermal vents, meiofaunal species richness was consistently higher than that of macrofauna. Consideration of the physiological capabilities and life history traits of different-sized animals suggests that different patterns of diversity may be caused by different capabilities to deal with environmental stress in the 2 size classes. In contrast to meiofauna, adaptations of macrofauna may have evolved to allow them to maintain their physiological homeostasis in a variety of hydrothermal vent habitats and exploit this food-rich deep-sea environment in high abundances. The habitat fidelity patterns also differed: macrofaunal species occurred primarily at vents and were generally restricted to this habitat, but meiofaunal species were distributed more evenly across proximate and distant basalt habitats and were thus not restricted to vent habitats. Over evolutionary time scales these contrasting patterns are likely driven by distinct reproduction strategies and food demands inherent to fauna of different sizes.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus