Limits...
MicroRNAs in apoptosis, autophagy and necroptosis.

Su Z, Yang Z, Xu Y, Chen Y, Yu Q - Oncotarget (2015)

Bottom Line: Numerous miRNAs regulate programmed cell death including apoptosis, autophagy and necroptosis.We summarize how miRNAs regulate apoptotic, autophagic and necroptotic pathways and cancer progression.We also discuss how miRNAs link different types of cell death.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Medical School, Southeast University, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210009, China.

ABSTRACT
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are endogenous 22 nt non-coding RNAs that target mRNAs for cleavage or translational repression. Numerous miRNAs regulate programmed cell death including apoptosis, autophagy and necroptosis. We summarize how miRNAs regulate apoptotic, autophagic and necroptotic pathways and cancer progression. We also discuss how miRNAs link different types of cell death.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

MiRNAs regulate the crosstalk between apoptosis, autophagy, and necroptosisAccumulating studies have shown that a close interaction between apoptosis, autophagy, and necroptosis. Some proteins that are conventionally thought to participate in apoptosis (blue) may play novel roles in autophagy or necroptosis. Alternatively, some autophagy modulators (yellow) may play a role in other modes of programmed cell death. The major miRNAs involved in the regulation of the crosstalk between apoptosis, autophagy, and necroptosis are shown in the diagram in dark blue. See the text for details.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4496162&req=5

Figure 5: MiRNAs regulate the crosstalk between apoptosis, autophagy, and necroptosisAccumulating studies have shown that a close interaction between apoptosis, autophagy, and necroptosis. Some proteins that are conventionally thought to participate in apoptosis (blue) may play novel roles in autophagy or necroptosis. Alternatively, some autophagy modulators (yellow) may play a role in other modes of programmed cell death. The major miRNAs involved in the regulation of the crosstalk between apoptosis, autophagy, and necroptosis are shown in the diagram in dark blue. See the text for details.

Mentions: cFLIP, a negative regulator of caspase-8, binds to ATG3 and blocks its conjugation to LC3, thereby attenuating autophagy [144]. In addition, cFLIP mediates the transition between apoptosis and necroptosis. In the absence of cFLIP, cells undergo apoptosis rather than necroptosis due to the high activity of caspase-8. A long isoform of cFLIP (cFLIPL) binds to caspase-8 to inhibit caspase-8-mediated apoptosis cascades. However, this cFLIPL-caspase-8 heterodimer retains the ability to cleave RIP1, which blocks RIP1–RIP3 formation and necroptosis [145]. In contrast, a short isoform of cFLIP (cFLIPS) is able to bind to caspase-8 to inhibit apoptosis, but the cFLIPS-caspase-8 heterodimer lacks the capacity to cleave RIP1, leading to the formation of the RIP1–RIP3 complex and the initiation of necroptosis. This reveals a triple role of FLIP, which controls apoptosis, autophagy, and necroptosis at the same time. The E3 ligases cIAP1 and cIAP2 mediate RIP1 ubiquitination, which not only promotes NF-κB activation but also inhibits the binding of RIP1 to Complex II, leading to the suppression of apoptosis and necroptosis [146]. The miRNAs involved in the regulation of this crosstalk are depicted in Figure 5.


MicroRNAs in apoptosis, autophagy and necroptosis.

Su Z, Yang Z, Xu Y, Chen Y, Yu Q - Oncotarget (2015)

MiRNAs regulate the crosstalk between apoptosis, autophagy, and necroptosisAccumulating studies have shown that a close interaction between apoptosis, autophagy, and necroptosis. Some proteins that are conventionally thought to participate in apoptosis (blue) may play novel roles in autophagy or necroptosis. Alternatively, some autophagy modulators (yellow) may play a role in other modes of programmed cell death. The major miRNAs involved in the regulation of the crosstalk between apoptosis, autophagy, and necroptosis are shown in the diagram in dark blue. See the text for details.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4496162&req=5

Figure 5: MiRNAs regulate the crosstalk between apoptosis, autophagy, and necroptosisAccumulating studies have shown that a close interaction between apoptosis, autophagy, and necroptosis. Some proteins that are conventionally thought to participate in apoptosis (blue) may play novel roles in autophagy or necroptosis. Alternatively, some autophagy modulators (yellow) may play a role in other modes of programmed cell death. The major miRNAs involved in the regulation of the crosstalk between apoptosis, autophagy, and necroptosis are shown in the diagram in dark blue. See the text for details.
Mentions: cFLIP, a negative regulator of caspase-8, binds to ATG3 and blocks its conjugation to LC3, thereby attenuating autophagy [144]. In addition, cFLIP mediates the transition between apoptosis and necroptosis. In the absence of cFLIP, cells undergo apoptosis rather than necroptosis due to the high activity of caspase-8. A long isoform of cFLIP (cFLIPL) binds to caspase-8 to inhibit caspase-8-mediated apoptosis cascades. However, this cFLIPL-caspase-8 heterodimer retains the ability to cleave RIP1, which blocks RIP1–RIP3 formation and necroptosis [145]. In contrast, a short isoform of cFLIP (cFLIPS) is able to bind to caspase-8 to inhibit apoptosis, but the cFLIPS-caspase-8 heterodimer lacks the capacity to cleave RIP1, leading to the formation of the RIP1–RIP3 complex and the initiation of necroptosis. This reveals a triple role of FLIP, which controls apoptosis, autophagy, and necroptosis at the same time. The E3 ligases cIAP1 and cIAP2 mediate RIP1 ubiquitination, which not only promotes NF-κB activation but also inhibits the binding of RIP1 to Complex II, leading to the suppression of apoptosis and necroptosis [146]. The miRNAs involved in the regulation of this crosstalk are depicted in Figure 5.

Bottom Line: Numerous miRNAs regulate programmed cell death including apoptosis, autophagy and necroptosis.We summarize how miRNAs regulate apoptotic, autophagic and necroptotic pathways and cancer progression.We also discuss how miRNAs link different types of cell death.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Medical School, Southeast University, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210009, China.

ABSTRACT
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are endogenous 22 nt non-coding RNAs that target mRNAs for cleavage or translational repression. Numerous miRNAs regulate programmed cell death including apoptosis, autophagy and necroptosis. We summarize how miRNAs regulate apoptotic, autophagic and necroptotic pathways and cancer progression. We also discuss how miRNAs link different types of cell death.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus