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Prediction and Production of Simple Mathematical Equations: Evidence from Visual World Eye-Tracking.

Hintz F, Meyer AS - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: The relationship between the production and the comprehension systems has recently become a topic of interest for many psycholinguists.It has been argued that these systems are tightly linked and in particular that listeners use the production system to predict upcoming content.In this study, we tested how similar production and prediction processes are in a novel version of the visual world paradigm.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Max Planck Institute for Psycholinguistics, Nijmegen, The Netherlands; International Max Planck Research School for Language Sciences, Nijmegen, The Netherlands.

ABSTRACT
The relationship between the production and the comprehension systems has recently become a topic of interest for many psycholinguists. It has been argued that these systems are tightly linked and in particular that listeners use the production system to predict upcoming content. In this study, we tested how similar production and prediction processes are in a novel version of the visual world paradigm. Dutch speaking participants (native speakers in Experiment 1; German-Dutch bilinguals in Experiment 2) listened to mathematical equations while looking at a clock face featuring the numbers 1 to 12. On alternating trials, they either heard a complete equation ("three plus eight is eleven") or they heard the first part ("three plus eight is") and had to produce the result ("eleven") themselves. Participants were encouraged to look at the relevant numbers throughout the trial. Their eye movements were recorded and analyzed. We found that the participants' eye movements in the two tasks were overall very similar. They fixated the first and second number of the equations shortly after they were mentioned, and fixated the result number well before they named it on production trials and well before the recorded speaker named it on comprehension trials. However, all fixation latencies were shorter on production than on comprehension trials. These findings suggest that the processes involved in planning to say a word and anticipating hearing a word are quite similar, but that people are more aroused or engaged when they intend to respond than when they merely listen to another person.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Fixation proportions of the German-Dutch bilinguals in Experiment 2.The data are plotted in the same way as for Experiment 1: Average fixation proportions to first (dotted lines), second (dashed lines) and result number (solid lines) for production (blue) and comprehension (red) conditions are shown. Fixations are plotted backwards from the offset of "is" in the recordings (time zero) to the onset of the first number. The first vertical dotted line represents the average onset of the second number. The areas shaded in gray represent the space in between the lower and upper bounds of the 95% by-participant confident intervals.
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pone.0130766.g002: Fixation proportions of the German-Dutch bilinguals in Experiment 2.The data are plotted in the same way as for Experiment 1: Average fixation proportions to first (dotted lines), second (dashed lines) and result number (solid lines) for production (blue) and comprehension (red) conditions are shown. Fixations are plotted backwards from the offset of "is" in the recordings (time zero) to the onset of the first number. The first vertical dotted line represents the average onset of the second number. The areas shaded in gray represent the space in between the lower and upper bounds of the 95% by-participant confident intervals.

Mentions: Fig 2 shows the average proportions of fixations to the first, second, and result number across the average trial plotted in the same way as for Experiment 1. As can be seen in Table 1, the non-native speakers were somewhat slower to fixate the three numbers than the native speakers, but apart from this expected difference, the results for the two groups of participants were very similar. In both the comprehension and the production condition, the participants first looked at the first and second number, in the order of mention, and then at the result number. As in Experiment 1, participants looked earlier at the relevant numbers on production than on comprehension trials. However, on comprehension trials they still looked at the result number before it was produced by the prerecorded speakers; the average lag was 197 ms. In other words, they anticipated the result numbers, as the native speakers of Experiment 1 had done.


Prediction and Production of Simple Mathematical Equations: Evidence from Visual World Eye-Tracking.

Hintz F, Meyer AS - PLoS ONE (2015)

Fixation proportions of the German-Dutch bilinguals in Experiment 2.The data are plotted in the same way as for Experiment 1: Average fixation proportions to first (dotted lines), second (dashed lines) and result number (solid lines) for production (blue) and comprehension (red) conditions are shown. Fixations are plotted backwards from the offset of "is" in the recordings (time zero) to the onset of the first number. The first vertical dotted line represents the average onset of the second number. The areas shaded in gray represent the space in between the lower and upper bounds of the 95% by-participant confident intervals.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4496095&req=5

pone.0130766.g002: Fixation proportions of the German-Dutch bilinguals in Experiment 2.The data are plotted in the same way as for Experiment 1: Average fixation proportions to first (dotted lines), second (dashed lines) and result number (solid lines) for production (blue) and comprehension (red) conditions are shown. Fixations are plotted backwards from the offset of "is" in the recordings (time zero) to the onset of the first number. The first vertical dotted line represents the average onset of the second number. The areas shaded in gray represent the space in between the lower and upper bounds of the 95% by-participant confident intervals.
Mentions: Fig 2 shows the average proportions of fixations to the first, second, and result number across the average trial plotted in the same way as for Experiment 1. As can be seen in Table 1, the non-native speakers were somewhat slower to fixate the three numbers than the native speakers, but apart from this expected difference, the results for the two groups of participants were very similar. In both the comprehension and the production condition, the participants first looked at the first and second number, in the order of mention, and then at the result number. As in Experiment 1, participants looked earlier at the relevant numbers on production than on comprehension trials. However, on comprehension trials they still looked at the result number before it was produced by the prerecorded speakers; the average lag was 197 ms. In other words, they anticipated the result numbers, as the native speakers of Experiment 1 had done.

Bottom Line: The relationship between the production and the comprehension systems has recently become a topic of interest for many psycholinguists.It has been argued that these systems are tightly linked and in particular that listeners use the production system to predict upcoming content.In this study, we tested how similar production and prediction processes are in a novel version of the visual world paradigm.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Max Planck Institute for Psycholinguistics, Nijmegen, The Netherlands; International Max Planck Research School for Language Sciences, Nijmegen, The Netherlands.

ABSTRACT
The relationship between the production and the comprehension systems has recently become a topic of interest for many psycholinguists. It has been argued that these systems are tightly linked and in particular that listeners use the production system to predict upcoming content. In this study, we tested how similar production and prediction processes are in a novel version of the visual world paradigm. Dutch speaking participants (native speakers in Experiment 1; German-Dutch bilinguals in Experiment 2) listened to mathematical equations while looking at a clock face featuring the numbers 1 to 12. On alternating trials, they either heard a complete equation ("three plus eight is eleven") or they heard the first part ("three plus eight is") and had to produce the result ("eleven") themselves. Participants were encouraged to look at the relevant numbers throughout the trial. Their eye movements were recorded and analyzed. We found that the participants' eye movements in the two tasks were overall very similar. They fixated the first and second number of the equations shortly after they were mentioned, and fixated the result number well before they named it on production trials and well before the recorded speaker named it on comprehension trials. However, all fixation latencies were shorter on production than on comprehension trials. These findings suggest that the processes involved in planning to say a word and anticipating hearing a word are quite similar, but that people are more aroused or engaged when they intend to respond than when they merely listen to another person.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus