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Cranial Anatomy of Wendiceratops pinhornensis gen. et sp. nov., a Centrosaurine Ceratopsid (Dinosauria: Ornithischia) from the Oldman Formation (Campanian), Alberta, Canada, and the Evolution of Ceratopsid Nasal Ornamentation.

Evans DC, Ryan MJ - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: We describe a new taxon of a highly adorned basal centrosaurine, Wendiceratops pinhornensis gen. et sp. nov., from the lower part of the Oldman Formation (middle Campanian, approximately 78-79 Ma), Alberta, Canada.Although the morphology of the nasal is incompletely known, Wendiceratops is inferred to have a large, upright nasal horn located close to the orbits, which represents the oldest occurrence of this feature in Ceratopsia.Given the phylogenetic position of the new taxon within Centrosaurinae, a enlarged nasal horn is hypothesized to have arisen independently at least twice in ceratopsid evolution.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Natural History, Royal Ontario Museum, 100 Queen's Park, Toronto, Ontario, M5S 2C6 Canada; Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of Toronto, 25 Willcocks Street, Toronto, Ontario, M5S 3B2 Canada.

ABSTRACT
The fossil record of ceratopsid dinosaurs between the occurrence of their proximate sister taxa in the Turonian and the beginning of their well-documented radiation from the late Campanian of North America onwards (approximately 90 and 77 Ma) is poor, with only seven taxa described from this early period in their evolution. We describe a new taxon of a highly adorned basal centrosaurine, Wendiceratops pinhornensis gen. et sp. nov., from the lower part of the Oldman Formation (middle Campanian, approximately 78-79 Ma), Alberta, Canada. Over 200 bones derived from virtually all parts of the skeleton, including multiple well-preserved specimens of the diagnostic parietosquamosal frill, were collected from a medium-density monodominant bonebed, making the new taxon one of the best-represented early ceratopsids. The new taxon is apomorphic in having epiparietals at loci 2 and 3 developed as broad-based, pachyostotic processes that are strongly procurved anterodorsally to overhang the posterior and lateral parietal rami, and an ischium with a broad, rectangular distal terminus. Although the morphology of the nasal is incompletely known, Wendiceratops is inferred to have a large, upright nasal horn located close to the orbits, which represents the oldest occurrence of this feature in Ceratopsia. Given the phylogenetic position of the new taxon within Centrosaurinae, a enlarged nasal horn is hypothesized to have arisen independently at least twice in ceratopsid evolution.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Rostral and nasal of Wendiceratops pinhornensis gen. et sp. nov.TMP 2011.051.0023, fragmentary rostral, in A) left lateral, B) posterior, and C) ventral views. TMP 2013.020.0028, right nasal fragment, in D) right lateral, E) anterior, and F) internal views. The preserved nasal ornamentation (norn) represents only the lower portion of what is inferred to be a prominent, erect horncore. Abbreviations: norn, nasal ornamentation; pm c, premaxilla contact; prf c, prefrontal contact.
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pone.0130007.g008: Rostral and nasal of Wendiceratops pinhornensis gen. et sp. nov.TMP 2011.051.0023, fragmentary rostral, in A) left lateral, B) posterior, and C) ventral views. TMP 2013.020.0028, right nasal fragment, in D) right lateral, E) anterior, and F) internal views. The preserved nasal ornamentation (norn) represents only the lower portion of what is inferred to be a prominent, erect horncore. Abbreviations: norn, nasal ornamentation; pm c, premaxilla contact; prf c, prefrontal contact.

Mentions: Cranial material referred to Wendiceratops pinhornensis gen. et sp. nov. includes: TMP 2011.051.0019 (subadult lateral parietal bar; Fig 4D and 4E); TMP 2013.020.0048 (parietal, posterior midline bar; Fig 5); TMP 2014.029.0097 (parietal fragment; Fig 6A–6C); TMP 2014.029.0016 (parietal fragment; Fig 6I and 6J), TMP 2011.051.0010 (right squamosal; Fig 7A and 7B), TMP 2011.051.0002 (squamosal fragment; Fig 7C and 7D); TMP 2013.020.0006 (squamosal fragment; Fig 7E and 7F); TMP 2013.020.0035 (incomplete pathological squamosal); TMP 2013.020.0028 (nasal fragment; Fig 8D–8F); TMP 2013.020.0016 (incomplete jugal; Fig 9D and 9E); TMP 2014.029.0074 (right maxilla, Fig 10A–10E). For a complete list of referred material, see Supporting Information (S1 File).


Cranial Anatomy of Wendiceratops pinhornensis gen. et sp. nov., a Centrosaurine Ceratopsid (Dinosauria: Ornithischia) from the Oldman Formation (Campanian), Alberta, Canada, and the Evolution of Ceratopsid Nasal Ornamentation.

Evans DC, Ryan MJ - PLoS ONE (2015)

Rostral and nasal of Wendiceratops pinhornensis gen. et sp. nov.TMP 2011.051.0023, fragmentary rostral, in A) left lateral, B) posterior, and C) ventral views. TMP 2013.020.0028, right nasal fragment, in D) right lateral, E) anterior, and F) internal views. The preserved nasal ornamentation (norn) represents only the lower portion of what is inferred to be a prominent, erect horncore. Abbreviations: norn, nasal ornamentation; pm c, premaxilla contact; prf c, prefrontal contact.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4496092&req=5

pone.0130007.g008: Rostral and nasal of Wendiceratops pinhornensis gen. et sp. nov.TMP 2011.051.0023, fragmentary rostral, in A) left lateral, B) posterior, and C) ventral views. TMP 2013.020.0028, right nasal fragment, in D) right lateral, E) anterior, and F) internal views. The preserved nasal ornamentation (norn) represents only the lower portion of what is inferred to be a prominent, erect horncore. Abbreviations: norn, nasal ornamentation; pm c, premaxilla contact; prf c, prefrontal contact.
Mentions: Cranial material referred to Wendiceratops pinhornensis gen. et sp. nov. includes: TMP 2011.051.0019 (subadult lateral parietal bar; Fig 4D and 4E); TMP 2013.020.0048 (parietal, posterior midline bar; Fig 5); TMP 2014.029.0097 (parietal fragment; Fig 6A–6C); TMP 2014.029.0016 (parietal fragment; Fig 6I and 6J), TMP 2011.051.0010 (right squamosal; Fig 7A and 7B), TMP 2011.051.0002 (squamosal fragment; Fig 7C and 7D); TMP 2013.020.0006 (squamosal fragment; Fig 7E and 7F); TMP 2013.020.0035 (incomplete pathological squamosal); TMP 2013.020.0028 (nasal fragment; Fig 8D–8F); TMP 2013.020.0016 (incomplete jugal; Fig 9D and 9E); TMP 2014.029.0074 (right maxilla, Fig 10A–10E). For a complete list of referred material, see Supporting Information (S1 File).

Bottom Line: We describe a new taxon of a highly adorned basal centrosaurine, Wendiceratops pinhornensis gen. et sp. nov., from the lower part of the Oldman Formation (middle Campanian, approximately 78-79 Ma), Alberta, Canada.Although the morphology of the nasal is incompletely known, Wendiceratops is inferred to have a large, upright nasal horn located close to the orbits, which represents the oldest occurrence of this feature in Ceratopsia.Given the phylogenetic position of the new taxon within Centrosaurinae, a enlarged nasal horn is hypothesized to have arisen independently at least twice in ceratopsid evolution.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Natural History, Royal Ontario Museum, 100 Queen's Park, Toronto, Ontario, M5S 2C6 Canada; Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of Toronto, 25 Willcocks Street, Toronto, Ontario, M5S 3B2 Canada.

ABSTRACT
The fossil record of ceratopsid dinosaurs between the occurrence of their proximate sister taxa in the Turonian and the beginning of their well-documented radiation from the late Campanian of North America onwards (approximately 90 and 77 Ma) is poor, with only seven taxa described from this early period in their evolution. We describe a new taxon of a highly adorned basal centrosaurine, Wendiceratops pinhornensis gen. et sp. nov., from the lower part of the Oldman Formation (middle Campanian, approximately 78-79 Ma), Alberta, Canada. Over 200 bones derived from virtually all parts of the skeleton, including multiple well-preserved specimens of the diagnostic parietosquamosal frill, were collected from a medium-density monodominant bonebed, making the new taxon one of the best-represented early ceratopsids. The new taxon is apomorphic in having epiparietals at loci 2 and 3 developed as broad-based, pachyostotic processes that are strongly procurved anterodorsally to overhang the posterior and lateral parietal rami, and an ischium with a broad, rectangular distal terminus. Although the morphology of the nasal is incompletely known, Wendiceratops is inferred to have a large, upright nasal horn located close to the orbits, which represents the oldest occurrence of this feature in Ceratopsia. Given the phylogenetic position of the new taxon within Centrosaurinae, a enlarged nasal horn is hypothesized to have arisen independently at least twice in ceratopsid evolution.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus