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Differential Rearing Alters Forced Swim Test Behavior, Fluoxetine Efficacy, and Post-Test Weight Gain in Male Rats.

Arndt DL, Peterson CJ, Cain ME - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: Results revealed an antidepressant effect of environmental enrichment and a depressant effect of isolation.Subchronic 20 mg/kg fluoxetine also induced significant weight loss, and differential rearing appeared to moderate weight gain following FST stress.These results suggest that differential rearing has the ability to alter FST behaviors, fluoxetine efficacy, and post-stressor well-being.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Psychological Sciences, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS, United States of America.

ABSTRACT
Environmental factors play a key role in the etiology of depression. The rodent forced swim test (FST) is commonly used as a preclinical model of depression, with increases in escape-directed behavior reflecting antidepressant effects, and increases in immobility reflecting behavioral despair. Environmental enrichment leads to serotonergic alterations in rats, but it is unknown whether these alterations may influence the efficacy of common antidepressants. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were reared in enriched (EC), standard (SC), or isolated (IC) conditions. Following the rearing period, fluoxetine (10 or 20 mg/kg, i.p.) was administered 23.5 hrs, 5 hrs, and 1 hr before locomotor and FST measures. Following locomotor testing and FST exposure, rats were weighed to assess fluoxetine-, FST-, and environmental condition-induced moderations in weight gain. Results revealed an antidepressant effect of environmental enrichment and a depressant effect of isolation. Regardless of significant fluoxetine effects on locomotor activity, fluoxetine generally decreased swimming and increased immobility in all three environmental conditions, with IC-fluoxetine (10 mg/kg) rats and EC-fluoxetine (20 mg/kg) rats swimming less than vehicle counterparts. Subchronic 20 mg/kg fluoxetine also induced significant weight loss, and differential rearing appeared to moderate weight gain following FST stress. These results suggest that differential rearing has the ability to alter FST behaviors, fluoxetine efficacy, and post-stressor well-being. Moreover, 20 mg/kg fluoxetine, administered subchronically, may lead to atypical effects of those commonly observed in the FST, highlighting the importance and impact of both environmental condition and dosing regimen in common animal models of depression.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Experiment II Pretest Swimming, Climbing, and Immobility.Experiment II total mean counts (±SEM) of (A) climbing, (B) swimming, and (C) immobility behavior between EC, SC, and IC rats during the first five minutes of the forced swim pretest. (A) Asterisk (*) indicates EC rats exhibited significantly more climbing than both SC and IC rats during the first five minutes of the pretest. (B) Asterisk (*) indicates IC rats exhibited significantly less swimming than SC rats during the first five minutes of the pretest (p < .05).
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pone.0131709.g004: Experiment II Pretest Swimming, Climbing, and Immobility.Experiment II total mean counts (±SEM) of (A) climbing, (B) swimming, and (C) immobility behavior between EC, SC, and IC rats during the first five minutes of the forced swim pretest. (A) Asterisk (*) indicates EC rats exhibited significantly more climbing than both SC and IC rats during the first five minutes of the pretest. (B) Asterisk (*) indicates IC rats exhibited significantly less swimming than SC rats during the first five minutes of the pretest (p < .05).

Mentions: For pretest climbing, there was a significant main effect of environmental condition, F(2, 55) = 4.66, p = .014. EC rats displayed significantly more climbing during the pretest than IC rats and SC rats (p < .05; αFER = .05; Fig 4A), which again suggests an antidepressant effect of enrichment.


Differential Rearing Alters Forced Swim Test Behavior, Fluoxetine Efficacy, and Post-Test Weight Gain in Male Rats.

Arndt DL, Peterson CJ, Cain ME - PLoS ONE (2015)

Experiment II Pretest Swimming, Climbing, and Immobility.Experiment II total mean counts (±SEM) of (A) climbing, (B) swimming, and (C) immobility behavior between EC, SC, and IC rats during the first five minutes of the forced swim pretest. (A) Asterisk (*) indicates EC rats exhibited significantly more climbing than both SC and IC rats during the first five minutes of the pretest. (B) Asterisk (*) indicates IC rats exhibited significantly less swimming than SC rats during the first five minutes of the pretest (p < .05).
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4496081&req=5

pone.0131709.g004: Experiment II Pretest Swimming, Climbing, and Immobility.Experiment II total mean counts (±SEM) of (A) climbing, (B) swimming, and (C) immobility behavior between EC, SC, and IC rats during the first five minutes of the forced swim pretest. (A) Asterisk (*) indicates EC rats exhibited significantly more climbing than both SC and IC rats during the first five minutes of the pretest. (B) Asterisk (*) indicates IC rats exhibited significantly less swimming than SC rats during the first five minutes of the pretest (p < .05).
Mentions: For pretest climbing, there was a significant main effect of environmental condition, F(2, 55) = 4.66, p = .014. EC rats displayed significantly more climbing during the pretest than IC rats and SC rats (p < .05; αFER = .05; Fig 4A), which again suggests an antidepressant effect of enrichment.

Bottom Line: Results revealed an antidepressant effect of environmental enrichment and a depressant effect of isolation.Subchronic 20 mg/kg fluoxetine also induced significant weight loss, and differential rearing appeared to moderate weight gain following FST stress.These results suggest that differential rearing has the ability to alter FST behaviors, fluoxetine efficacy, and post-stressor well-being.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Psychological Sciences, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS, United States of America.

ABSTRACT
Environmental factors play a key role in the etiology of depression. The rodent forced swim test (FST) is commonly used as a preclinical model of depression, with increases in escape-directed behavior reflecting antidepressant effects, and increases in immobility reflecting behavioral despair. Environmental enrichment leads to serotonergic alterations in rats, but it is unknown whether these alterations may influence the efficacy of common antidepressants. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were reared in enriched (EC), standard (SC), or isolated (IC) conditions. Following the rearing period, fluoxetine (10 or 20 mg/kg, i.p.) was administered 23.5 hrs, 5 hrs, and 1 hr before locomotor and FST measures. Following locomotor testing and FST exposure, rats were weighed to assess fluoxetine-, FST-, and environmental condition-induced moderations in weight gain. Results revealed an antidepressant effect of environmental enrichment and a depressant effect of isolation. Regardless of significant fluoxetine effects on locomotor activity, fluoxetine generally decreased swimming and increased immobility in all three environmental conditions, with IC-fluoxetine (10 mg/kg) rats and EC-fluoxetine (20 mg/kg) rats swimming less than vehicle counterparts. Subchronic 20 mg/kg fluoxetine also induced significant weight loss, and differential rearing appeared to moderate weight gain following FST stress. These results suggest that differential rearing has the ability to alter FST behaviors, fluoxetine efficacy, and post-stressor well-being. Moreover, 20 mg/kg fluoxetine, administered subchronically, may lead to atypical effects of those commonly observed in the FST, highlighting the importance and impact of both environmental condition and dosing regimen in common animal models of depression.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus