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Prevalence and Mechanisms of Dynamic Chemical Defenses in Tropical Sponges.

Rohde S, Nietzer S, Schupp PJ - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: Interestingly, 50% of the tested sponge species demonstrated induced antimicrobial defense.Simulated predation increased the antimicrobial defenses in Aplysinella sp., Cacospongia sp., M. sarasinorum, and S. massa.Our results suggest that wounding selects for induced antimicrobial defenses to protect sponges from pathogens that could otherwise invade the sponge tissue via feeding scars.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Institute for Chemistry and Biology of the Marine Environment (ICBM), Carl-von-Ossietzky University Oldenburg, Wilhelmshaven, Germany.

ABSTRACT
Sponges and other sessile invertebrates are lacking behavioural escape or defense mechanisms and rely therefore on morphological or chemical defenses. Studies from terrestrial systems and marine algae demonstrated facultative defenses like induction and activation to be common, suggesting that sessile marine organisms also evolved mechanisms to increase the efficiency of their chemical defense. However, inducible defenses in sponges have not been investigated so far and studies on activated defenses are rare. We investigated whether tropical sponge species induce defenses in response to artificial predation and whether wounding triggers defense activation. Additionally, we tested if these mechanisms are also used to boost antimicrobial activity to avoid bacterial infection. Laboratory experiments with eight pacific sponge species showed that 87% of the tested species were chemically defended. Two species, Stylissa massa and Melophlus sarasinorum, induced defenses in response to simulated predation, which is the first demonstration of induced antipredatory defenses in marine sponges. One species, M. sarasinorum, also showed activated defense in response to wounding. Interestingly, 50% of the tested sponge species demonstrated induced antimicrobial defense. Simulated predation increased the antimicrobial defenses in Aplysinella sp., Cacospongia sp., M. sarasinorum, and S. massa. Our results suggest that wounding selects for induced antimicrobial defenses to protect sponges from pathogens that could otherwise invade the sponge tissue via feeding scars.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Difference in microbial inhibition between induced and non-induced sponge extracts in disc diffusion assays.Positive values reflect higher inhibition in induced extracts, negative values reflect higher inhibition in non-induced extracts. P-values indicate the result of the pair wise analysis (Wilcoxon's signed rank test).
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pone.0132236.g008: Difference in microbial inhibition between induced and non-induced sponge extracts in disc diffusion assays.Positive values reflect higher inhibition in induced extracts, negative values reflect higher inhibition in non-induced extracts. P-values indicate the result of the pair wise analysis (Wilcoxon's signed rank test).

Mentions: Disc diffusion assays investigated the antimicrobial activity of sponge extracts (Fig 7). Comparisons between sponge species showed very variable antimicrobial effects. H. altus and Iotrochota sp. showed very low antimicrobial activity, M. sarasinorum and Aplysinella sp. medium and D. granulosa, S. massa and N. carbonaria rather strong antimicrobial activity. Induction treatment increased microbial inhibition significantly in four of the eight tested sponge species (Fig 8), with Aplysinella sp., Cacospongia sp., M. sarasinorum, and S. massa yielding higher antimicrobial activity (Wilcoxon, p<0.01). N. carbonaria showed a similar trend (Wilcoxon, p = 0.07), while D. granulosa, H. altus and Iotrochota sp. showed no difference between induced and non-induced state. Activation treatment increased microbial inhibition in D. granulosa and H. altus significantly (Wilcoxon, p = 0.04, p = 0.02, resp.), decreased antimicrobial activity in S. massa and N. carbonaria (Wilcoxon, p = 0.01, p = 0.02, resp.) and did not change in Aplysinella sp., Cacospongia sp., Iotrochota sp., and M. sarasinorum (Fig 9, Wilcoxon, p>0.05).


Prevalence and Mechanisms of Dynamic Chemical Defenses in Tropical Sponges.

Rohde S, Nietzer S, Schupp PJ - PLoS ONE (2015)

Difference in microbial inhibition between induced and non-induced sponge extracts in disc diffusion assays.Positive values reflect higher inhibition in induced extracts, negative values reflect higher inhibition in non-induced extracts. P-values indicate the result of the pair wise analysis (Wilcoxon's signed rank test).
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4496075&req=5

pone.0132236.g008: Difference in microbial inhibition between induced and non-induced sponge extracts in disc diffusion assays.Positive values reflect higher inhibition in induced extracts, negative values reflect higher inhibition in non-induced extracts. P-values indicate the result of the pair wise analysis (Wilcoxon's signed rank test).
Mentions: Disc diffusion assays investigated the antimicrobial activity of sponge extracts (Fig 7). Comparisons between sponge species showed very variable antimicrobial effects. H. altus and Iotrochota sp. showed very low antimicrobial activity, M. sarasinorum and Aplysinella sp. medium and D. granulosa, S. massa and N. carbonaria rather strong antimicrobial activity. Induction treatment increased microbial inhibition significantly in four of the eight tested sponge species (Fig 8), with Aplysinella sp., Cacospongia sp., M. sarasinorum, and S. massa yielding higher antimicrobial activity (Wilcoxon, p<0.01). N. carbonaria showed a similar trend (Wilcoxon, p = 0.07), while D. granulosa, H. altus and Iotrochota sp. showed no difference between induced and non-induced state. Activation treatment increased microbial inhibition in D. granulosa and H. altus significantly (Wilcoxon, p = 0.04, p = 0.02, resp.), decreased antimicrobial activity in S. massa and N. carbonaria (Wilcoxon, p = 0.01, p = 0.02, resp.) and did not change in Aplysinella sp., Cacospongia sp., Iotrochota sp., and M. sarasinorum (Fig 9, Wilcoxon, p>0.05).

Bottom Line: Interestingly, 50% of the tested sponge species demonstrated induced antimicrobial defense.Simulated predation increased the antimicrobial defenses in Aplysinella sp., Cacospongia sp., M. sarasinorum, and S. massa.Our results suggest that wounding selects for induced antimicrobial defenses to protect sponges from pathogens that could otherwise invade the sponge tissue via feeding scars.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Institute for Chemistry and Biology of the Marine Environment (ICBM), Carl-von-Ossietzky University Oldenburg, Wilhelmshaven, Germany.

ABSTRACT
Sponges and other sessile invertebrates are lacking behavioural escape or defense mechanisms and rely therefore on morphological or chemical defenses. Studies from terrestrial systems and marine algae demonstrated facultative defenses like induction and activation to be common, suggesting that sessile marine organisms also evolved mechanisms to increase the efficiency of their chemical defense. However, inducible defenses in sponges have not been investigated so far and studies on activated defenses are rare. We investigated whether tropical sponge species induce defenses in response to artificial predation and whether wounding triggers defense activation. Additionally, we tested if these mechanisms are also used to boost antimicrobial activity to avoid bacterial infection. Laboratory experiments with eight pacific sponge species showed that 87% of the tested species were chemically defended. Two species, Stylissa massa and Melophlus sarasinorum, induced defenses in response to simulated predation, which is the first demonstration of induced antipredatory defenses in marine sponges. One species, M. sarasinorum, also showed activated defense in response to wounding. Interestingly, 50% of the tested sponge species demonstrated induced antimicrobial defense. Simulated predation increased the antimicrobial defenses in Aplysinella sp., Cacospongia sp., M. sarasinorum, and S. massa. Our results suggest that wounding selects for induced antimicrobial defenses to protect sponges from pathogens that could otherwise invade the sponge tissue via feeding scars.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus