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Prevalence and Mechanisms of Dynamic Chemical Defenses in Tropical Sponges.

Rohde S, Nietzer S, Schupp PJ - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: Interestingly, 50% of the tested sponge species demonstrated induced antimicrobial defense.Simulated predation increased the antimicrobial defenses in Aplysinella sp., Cacospongia sp., M. sarasinorum, and S. massa.Our results suggest that wounding selects for induced antimicrobial defenses to protect sponges from pathogens that could otherwise invade the sponge tissue via feeding scars.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Institute for Chemistry and Biology of the Marine Environment (ICBM), Carl-von-Ossietzky University Oldenburg, Wilhelmshaven, Germany.

ABSTRACT
Sponges and other sessile invertebrates are lacking behavioural escape or defense mechanisms and rely therefore on morphological or chemical defenses. Studies from terrestrial systems and marine algae demonstrated facultative defenses like induction and activation to be common, suggesting that sessile marine organisms also evolved mechanisms to increase the efficiency of their chemical defense. However, inducible defenses in sponges have not been investigated so far and studies on activated defenses are rare. We investigated whether tropical sponge species induce defenses in response to artificial predation and whether wounding triggers defense activation. Additionally, we tested if these mechanisms are also used to boost antimicrobial activity to avoid bacterial infection. Laboratory experiments with eight pacific sponge species showed that 87% of the tested species were chemically defended. Two species, Stylissa massa and Melophlus sarasinorum, induced defenses in response to simulated predation, which is the first demonstration of induced antipredatory defenses in marine sponges. One species, M. sarasinorum, also showed activated defense in response to wounding. Interestingly, 50% of the tested sponge species demonstrated induced antimicrobial defense. Simulated predation increased the antimicrobial defenses in Aplysinella sp., Cacospongia sp., M. sarasinorum, and S. massa. Our results suggest that wounding selects for induced antimicrobial defenses to protect sponges from pathogens that could otherwise invade the sponge tissue via feeding scars.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Effect of defense induction on predation by Diadema savignyi (mean+1 SD, n = 10).Food pellets contained organic extracts of induced specimen (hatched bars) or non-induced specimen (black bars). P-values indicate the result of the pair wise analysis (Wilcoxon's signed rank test).
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pone.0132236.g004: Effect of defense induction on predation by Diadema savignyi (mean+1 SD, n = 10).Food pellets contained organic extracts of induced specimen (hatched bars) or non-induced specimen (black bars). P-values indicate the result of the pair wise analysis (Wilcoxon's signed rank test).

Mentions: Comparisons of the deterrence of induced sponges by simulated predation with non-induced sponges revealed that inducible defense was apparent only in the sponges S. massa and M. sarasinorum (Figs 3 and 4). While the induced defense of S. massa was effective on both the pufferfish and the urchins, the induced defense of M. sarasinorum was only effective in the pufferfish assays. The species Aplysinella sp., Cacospongia sp., D. granulosa, and Iotrochota sp. showed no difference in palatability in response to induction (Wilcoxon, p>0.05). N. carbonaria was even preferred by the pufferfish when it was induced compared to non-induced extracts (Wilcoxon, p = 0.02), but this effect was absent in the urchin assay.


Prevalence and Mechanisms of Dynamic Chemical Defenses in Tropical Sponges.

Rohde S, Nietzer S, Schupp PJ - PLoS ONE (2015)

Effect of defense induction on predation by Diadema savignyi (mean+1 SD, n = 10).Food pellets contained organic extracts of induced specimen (hatched bars) or non-induced specimen (black bars). P-values indicate the result of the pair wise analysis (Wilcoxon's signed rank test).
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4496075&req=5

pone.0132236.g004: Effect of defense induction on predation by Diadema savignyi (mean+1 SD, n = 10).Food pellets contained organic extracts of induced specimen (hatched bars) or non-induced specimen (black bars). P-values indicate the result of the pair wise analysis (Wilcoxon's signed rank test).
Mentions: Comparisons of the deterrence of induced sponges by simulated predation with non-induced sponges revealed that inducible defense was apparent only in the sponges S. massa and M. sarasinorum (Figs 3 and 4). While the induced defense of S. massa was effective on both the pufferfish and the urchins, the induced defense of M. sarasinorum was only effective in the pufferfish assays. The species Aplysinella sp., Cacospongia sp., D. granulosa, and Iotrochota sp. showed no difference in palatability in response to induction (Wilcoxon, p>0.05). N. carbonaria was even preferred by the pufferfish when it was induced compared to non-induced extracts (Wilcoxon, p = 0.02), but this effect was absent in the urchin assay.

Bottom Line: Interestingly, 50% of the tested sponge species demonstrated induced antimicrobial defense.Simulated predation increased the antimicrobial defenses in Aplysinella sp., Cacospongia sp., M. sarasinorum, and S. massa.Our results suggest that wounding selects for induced antimicrobial defenses to protect sponges from pathogens that could otherwise invade the sponge tissue via feeding scars.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Institute for Chemistry and Biology of the Marine Environment (ICBM), Carl-von-Ossietzky University Oldenburg, Wilhelmshaven, Germany.

ABSTRACT
Sponges and other sessile invertebrates are lacking behavioural escape or defense mechanisms and rely therefore on morphological or chemical defenses. Studies from terrestrial systems and marine algae demonstrated facultative defenses like induction and activation to be common, suggesting that sessile marine organisms also evolved mechanisms to increase the efficiency of their chemical defense. However, inducible defenses in sponges have not been investigated so far and studies on activated defenses are rare. We investigated whether tropical sponge species induce defenses in response to artificial predation and whether wounding triggers defense activation. Additionally, we tested if these mechanisms are also used to boost antimicrobial activity to avoid bacterial infection. Laboratory experiments with eight pacific sponge species showed that 87% of the tested species were chemically defended. Two species, Stylissa massa and Melophlus sarasinorum, induced defenses in response to simulated predation, which is the first demonstration of induced antipredatory defenses in marine sponges. One species, M. sarasinorum, also showed activated defense in response to wounding. Interestingly, 50% of the tested sponge species demonstrated induced antimicrobial defense. Simulated predation increased the antimicrobial defenses in Aplysinella sp., Cacospongia sp., M. sarasinorum, and S. massa. Our results suggest that wounding selects for induced antimicrobial defenses to protect sponges from pathogens that could otherwise invade the sponge tissue via feeding scars.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus