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Prevalence and Mechanisms of Dynamic Chemical Defenses in Tropical Sponges.

Rohde S, Nietzer S, Schupp PJ - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: Interestingly, 50% of the tested sponge species demonstrated induced antimicrobial defense.Simulated predation increased the antimicrobial defenses in Aplysinella sp., Cacospongia sp., M. sarasinorum, and S. massa.Our results suggest that wounding selects for induced antimicrobial defenses to protect sponges from pathogens that could otherwise invade the sponge tissue via feeding scars.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Institute for Chemistry and Biology of the Marine Environment (ICBM), Carl-von-Ossietzky University Oldenburg, Wilhelmshaven, Germany.

ABSTRACT
Sponges and other sessile invertebrates are lacking behavioural escape or defense mechanisms and rely therefore on morphological or chemical defenses. Studies from terrestrial systems and marine algae demonstrated facultative defenses like induction and activation to be common, suggesting that sessile marine organisms also evolved mechanisms to increase the efficiency of their chemical defense. However, inducible defenses in sponges have not been investigated so far and studies on activated defenses are rare. We investigated whether tropical sponge species induce defenses in response to artificial predation and whether wounding triggers defense activation. Additionally, we tested if these mechanisms are also used to boost antimicrobial activity to avoid bacterial infection. Laboratory experiments with eight pacific sponge species showed that 87% of the tested species were chemically defended. Two species, Stylissa massa and Melophlus sarasinorum, induced defenses in response to simulated predation, which is the first demonstration of induced antipredatory defenses in marine sponges. One species, M. sarasinorum, also showed activated defense in response to wounding. Interestingly, 50% of the tested sponge species demonstrated induced antimicrobial defense. Simulated predation increased the antimicrobial defenses in Aplysinella sp., Cacospongia sp., M. sarasinorum, and S. massa. Our results suggest that wounding selects for induced antimicrobial defenses to protect sponges from pathogens that could otherwise invade the sponge tissue via feeding scars.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Effect of crude extract of sponges on predation by Diadema savignyi (mean+1 SD, n = 10).Food pellets contained organic extracts at natural volumetric concentrations (white bars) or solvent only (black bars). P-values indicate the result of the pair wise analysis (Wilcoxon's signed rank test).
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pone.0132236.g002: Effect of crude extract of sponges on predation by Diadema savignyi (mean+1 SD, n = 10).Food pellets contained organic extracts at natural volumetric concentrations (white bars) or solvent only (black bars). P-values indicate the result of the pair wise analysis (Wilcoxon's signed rank test).

Mentions: General deterrence was tested by feeding assays with extracts of untreated sponges. All tested sponge species were chemically defended against predation compared to solvent controls (Wilcoxon, p<0.05), except for H. altus, that showed no antipredatory defenses (Wilcoxon, p = 0.35, Figs 1 and 2). The feeding assays with the pufferfish and the urchins produced highly congruent results.


Prevalence and Mechanisms of Dynamic Chemical Defenses in Tropical Sponges.

Rohde S, Nietzer S, Schupp PJ - PLoS ONE (2015)

Effect of crude extract of sponges on predation by Diadema savignyi (mean+1 SD, n = 10).Food pellets contained organic extracts at natural volumetric concentrations (white bars) or solvent only (black bars). P-values indicate the result of the pair wise analysis (Wilcoxon's signed rank test).
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4496075&req=5

pone.0132236.g002: Effect of crude extract of sponges on predation by Diadema savignyi (mean+1 SD, n = 10).Food pellets contained organic extracts at natural volumetric concentrations (white bars) or solvent only (black bars). P-values indicate the result of the pair wise analysis (Wilcoxon's signed rank test).
Mentions: General deterrence was tested by feeding assays with extracts of untreated sponges. All tested sponge species were chemically defended against predation compared to solvent controls (Wilcoxon, p<0.05), except for H. altus, that showed no antipredatory defenses (Wilcoxon, p = 0.35, Figs 1 and 2). The feeding assays with the pufferfish and the urchins produced highly congruent results.

Bottom Line: Interestingly, 50% of the tested sponge species demonstrated induced antimicrobial defense.Simulated predation increased the antimicrobial defenses in Aplysinella sp., Cacospongia sp., M. sarasinorum, and S. massa.Our results suggest that wounding selects for induced antimicrobial defenses to protect sponges from pathogens that could otherwise invade the sponge tissue via feeding scars.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Institute for Chemistry and Biology of the Marine Environment (ICBM), Carl-von-Ossietzky University Oldenburg, Wilhelmshaven, Germany.

ABSTRACT
Sponges and other sessile invertebrates are lacking behavioural escape or defense mechanisms and rely therefore on morphological or chemical defenses. Studies from terrestrial systems and marine algae demonstrated facultative defenses like induction and activation to be common, suggesting that sessile marine organisms also evolved mechanisms to increase the efficiency of their chemical defense. However, inducible defenses in sponges have not been investigated so far and studies on activated defenses are rare. We investigated whether tropical sponge species induce defenses in response to artificial predation and whether wounding triggers defense activation. Additionally, we tested if these mechanisms are also used to boost antimicrobial activity to avoid bacterial infection. Laboratory experiments with eight pacific sponge species showed that 87% of the tested species were chemically defended. Two species, Stylissa massa and Melophlus sarasinorum, induced defenses in response to simulated predation, which is the first demonstration of induced antipredatory defenses in marine sponges. One species, M. sarasinorum, also showed activated defense in response to wounding. Interestingly, 50% of the tested sponge species demonstrated induced antimicrobial defense. Simulated predation increased the antimicrobial defenses in Aplysinella sp., Cacospongia sp., M. sarasinorum, and S. massa. Our results suggest that wounding selects for induced antimicrobial defenses to protect sponges from pathogens that could otherwise invade the sponge tissue via feeding scars.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus