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Identifying Suitable Locations for Mesophotic Hard Corals Offshore of Maui, Hawai'i.

Costa B, Kendall MS, Parrish FA, Rooney J, Boland RC, Chow M, Lecky J, Montgomery A, Spalding H - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: MHC were concentrated between Hanaka'ō'ō and Papawai Points offshore of western Maui most likely because this area hosts warmer, clearer and calmer water conditions almost year round.While these predictions helped to fill some knowledge gaps offshore of Maui, many information gaps remain in the Hawaiian Archipelago and Pacific Islands.This approach may be used to identify other potentially suitable areas for MHCs, helping scientists and resource managers prioritize sites, and focus their limited resources on areas that may be of higher scientific or conservation value.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: National Centers for Coastal Ocean Science Biogeography Branch, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Silver Spring, Maryland, United States of America; CSS-Dynamac, Fairfax, Virginia, United States of America.

ABSTRACT
Mesophotic hard corals (MHC) are increasingly threatened by a growing number of anthropogenic stressors, including impacts from fishing, land-based sources of pollution, and ocean acidification. However, little is known about their geographic distributions (particularly around the Pacific islands) because it is logistically challenging and expensive to gather data in the 30 to 150 meter depth range where these organisms typically live. The goal of this study was to begin to fill this knowledge gap by modelling and predicting the spatial distribution of three genera of mesophotic hard corals offshore of Maui in the Main Hawaiian Islands. Maximum Entropy modeling software was used to create separate maps of predicted probability of occurrence and uncertainty for: (1) Leptoseris, (2) Montipora, and (3) Porites. Genera prevalence was derived from the in situ presence/absence data, and used to convert relative habitat suitability to probability of occurrence values. Approximately 1,300 georeferenced records of the occurrence of MHC, and 34 environmental predictors were used to train the model ensembles. Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) Area Under the Curve (AUC) values were between 0.89 and 0.97, indicating excellent overall model performance. Mean uncertainty and mean absolute error for the spatial predictions ranged from 0.006% to 0.05% and 3.73% to 17.6%, respectively. Depth, distance from shore, euphotic depth (mean and standard deviation) and sea surface temperature (mean and standard deviation) were identified as the six most influential predictor variables for partitioning habitats among the three genera. MHC were concentrated between Hanaka'ō'ō and Papawai Points offshore of western Maui most likely because this area hosts warmer, clearer and calmer water conditions almost year round. While these predictions helped to fill some knowledge gaps offshore of Maui, many information gaps remain in the Hawaiian Archipelago and Pacific Islands. This approach may be used to identify other potentially suitable areas for MHCs, helping scientists and resource managers prioritize sites, and focus their limited resources on areas that may be of higher scientific or conservation value.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Single variable response curves.The single response curves for the six most important environmental variables for predicting the occurrence of Montipora, Leptoseris and Porites: a) depth (meters), b) distance from shoreline (meters), c) mean euphotic depth (meters), d) standard deviation of euphotic depth (meters), e) mean sea surface temperature (°C), and f) standard deviation of sea surface temperature (°C).
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pone.0130285.g007: Single variable response curves.The single response curves for the six most important environmental variables for predicting the occurrence of Montipora, Leptoseris and Porites: a) depth (meters), b) distance from shoreline (meters), c) mean euphotic depth (meters), d) standard deviation of euphotic depth (meters), e) mean sea surface temperature (°C), and f) standard deviation of sea surface temperature (°C).

Mentions: Montipora, Leptoseris and Porites shared several variables that were influential in their models (as identified through the jackknife tests) (Fig 6). Shared, important variables included depth, distance from shore, euphotic depth (mean and standard deviation) and SST (mean and standard deviation). Slope of slope and rugosity (at 200 m) were also important for predicting Leptoseris. That being said, the Montipora, Leptoseris or Porites models were not dependent upon any single variable (or spatial scale), since their test AUCs did not decline dramatically when single variables were iteratively excluded from the modelling process. Comparisons across the genera offer some insight into how they partition the space differently in the study region. Notably, peak probability of occurrence values were shallowest for Porites (~47 m), deeper for Montipora (~60 m), and covered a broad, but deeper range of depths for Leptoseris (~85 m) (Fig 7A). Peak probability of occurrence values for distance to shore were shortest for Porites (~2.4 km), slightly farther offshore for Montipora (~4 km), and furthest offshore for Leptoseris (peaks at ~6 and ~9 km) (Fig 7B). It is important to note that no records were collected closer than 2.4 km from shore. In contrast, to depth and distance to shore, mean and variance of euphotic depth and mean SST showed broadly overlapping occurrences for all 3 genera. Leptoseris had the deepest peak at euphotic depth of 106 m, followed by Montipora at 103 m and Porites at 99 m (Fig 7C). Leptoseris showed peak probabilities in areas with lower variability in euphotic depth than Porites and Montipora (Fig 7D). Montipora showed peak probabilities in areas with lower SST and higher variation of SST than Porites or Leptoseris (Fig 7E and 7F).


Identifying Suitable Locations for Mesophotic Hard Corals Offshore of Maui, Hawai'i.

Costa B, Kendall MS, Parrish FA, Rooney J, Boland RC, Chow M, Lecky J, Montgomery A, Spalding H - PLoS ONE (2015)

Single variable response curves.The single response curves for the six most important environmental variables for predicting the occurrence of Montipora, Leptoseris and Porites: a) depth (meters), b) distance from shoreline (meters), c) mean euphotic depth (meters), d) standard deviation of euphotic depth (meters), e) mean sea surface temperature (°C), and f) standard deviation of sea surface temperature (°C).
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4495987&req=5

pone.0130285.g007: Single variable response curves.The single response curves for the six most important environmental variables for predicting the occurrence of Montipora, Leptoseris and Porites: a) depth (meters), b) distance from shoreline (meters), c) mean euphotic depth (meters), d) standard deviation of euphotic depth (meters), e) mean sea surface temperature (°C), and f) standard deviation of sea surface temperature (°C).
Mentions: Montipora, Leptoseris and Porites shared several variables that were influential in their models (as identified through the jackknife tests) (Fig 6). Shared, important variables included depth, distance from shore, euphotic depth (mean and standard deviation) and SST (mean and standard deviation). Slope of slope and rugosity (at 200 m) were also important for predicting Leptoseris. That being said, the Montipora, Leptoseris or Porites models were not dependent upon any single variable (or spatial scale), since their test AUCs did not decline dramatically when single variables were iteratively excluded from the modelling process. Comparisons across the genera offer some insight into how they partition the space differently in the study region. Notably, peak probability of occurrence values were shallowest for Porites (~47 m), deeper for Montipora (~60 m), and covered a broad, but deeper range of depths for Leptoseris (~85 m) (Fig 7A). Peak probability of occurrence values for distance to shore were shortest for Porites (~2.4 km), slightly farther offshore for Montipora (~4 km), and furthest offshore for Leptoseris (peaks at ~6 and ~9 km) (Fig 7B). It is important to note that no records were collected closer than 2.4 km from shore. In contrast, to depth and distance to shore, mean and variance of euphotic depth and mean SST showed broadly overlapping occurrences for all 3 genera. Leptoseris had the deepest peak at euphotic depth of 106 m, followed by Montipora at 103 m and Porites at 99 m (Fig 7C). Leptoseris showed peak probabilities in areas with lower variability in euphotic depth than Porites and Montipora (Fig 7D). Montipora showed peak probabilities in areas with lower SST and higher variation of SST than Porites or Leptoseris (Fig 7E and 7F).

Bottom Line: MHC were concentrated between Hanaka'ō'ō and Papawai Points offshore of western Maui most likely because this area hosts warmer, clearer and calmer water conditions almost year round.While these predictions helped to fill some knowledge gaps offshore of Maui, many information gaps remain in the Hawaiian Archipelago and Pacific Islands.This approach may be used to identify other potentially suitable areas for MHCs, helping scientists and resource managers prioritize sites, and focus their limited resources on areas that may be of higher scientific or conservation value.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: National Centers for Coastal Ocean Science Biogeography Branch, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Silver Spring, Maryland, United States of America; CSS-Dynamac, Fairfax, Virginia, United States of America.

ABSTRACT
Mesophotic hard corals (MHC) are increasingly threatened by a growing number of anthropogenic stressors, including impacts from fishing, land-based sources of pollution, and ocean acidification. However, little is known about their geographic distributions (particularly around the Pacific islands) because it is logistically challenging and expensive to gather data in the 30 to 150 meter depth range where these organisms typically live. The goal of this study was to begin to fill this knowledge gap by modelling and predicting the spatial distribution of three genera of mesophotic hard corals offshore of Maui in the Main Hawaiian Islands. Maximum Entropy modeling software was used to create separate maps of predicted probability of occurrence and uncertainty for: (1) Leptoseris, (2) Montipora, and (3) Porites. Genera prevalence was derived from the in situ presence/absence data, and used to convert relative habitat suitability to probability of occurrence values. Approximately 1,300 georeferenced records of the occurrence of MHC, and 34 environmental predictors were used to train the model ensembles. Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) Area Under the Curve (AUC) values were between 0.89 and 0.97, indicating excellent overall model performance. Mean uncertainty and mean absolute error for the spatial predictions ranged from 0.006% to 0.05% and 3.73% to 17.6%, respectively. Depth, distance from shore, euphotic depth (mean and standard deviation) and sea surface temperature (mean and standard deviation) were identified as the six most influential predictor variables for partitioning habitats among the three genera. MHC were concentrated between Hanaka'ō'ō and Papawai Points offshore of western Maui most likely because this area hosts warmer, clearer and calmer water conditions almost year round. While these predictions helped to fill some knowledge gaps offshore of Maui, many information gaps remain in the Hawaiian Archipelago and Pacific Islands. This approach may be used to identify other potentially suitable areas for MHCs, helping scientists and resource managers prioritize sites, and focus their limited resources on areas that may be of higher scientific or conservation value.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus