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Identifying Suitable Locations for Mesophotic Hard Corals Offshore of Maui, Hawai'i.

Costa B, Kendall MS, Parrish FA, Rooney J, Boland RC, Chow M, Lecky J, Montgomery A, Spalding H - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: MHC were concentrated between Hanaka'ō'ō and Papawai Points offshore of western Maui most likely because this area hosts warmer, clearer and calmer water conditions almost year round.While these predictions helped to fill some knowledge gaps offshore of Maui, many information gaps remain in the Hawaiian Archipelago and Pacific Islands.This approach may be used to identify other potentially suitable areas for MHCs, helping scientists and resource managers prioritize sites, and focus their limited resources on areas that may be of higher scientific or conservation value.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: National Centers for Coastal Ocean Science Biogeography Branch, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Silver Spring, Maryland, United States of America; CSS-Dynamac, Fairfax, Virginia, United States of America.

ABSTRACT
Mesophotic hard corals (MHC) are increasingly threatened by a growing number of anthropogenic stressors, including impacts from fishing, land-based sources of pollution, and ocean acidification. However, little is known about their geographic distributions (particularly around the Pacific islands) because it is logistically challenging and expensive to gather data in the 30 to 150 meter depth range where these organisms typically live. The goal of this study was to begin to fill this knowledge gap by modelling and predicting the spatial distribution of three genera of mesophotic hard corals offshore of Maui in the Main Hawaiian Islands. Maximum Entropy modeling software was used to create separate maps of predicted probability of occurrence and uncertainty for: (1) Leptoseris, (2) Montipora, and (3) Porites. Genera prevalence was derived from the in situ presence/absence data, and used to convert relative habitat suitability to probability of occurrence values. Approximately 1,300 georeferenced records of the occurrence of MHC, and 34 environmental predictors were used to train the model ensembles. Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) Area Under the Curve (AUC) values were between 0.89 and 0.97, indicating excellent overall model performance. Mean uncertainty and mean absolute error for the spatial predictions ranged from 0.006% to 0.05% and 3.73% to 17.6%, respectively. Depth, distance from shore, euphotic depth (mean and standard deviation) and sea surface temperature (mean and standard deviation) were identified as the six most influential predictor variables for partitioning habitats among the three genera. MHC were concentrated between Hanaka'ō'ō and Papawai Points offshore of western Maui most likely because this area hosts warmer, clearer and calmer water conditions almost year round. While these predictions helped to fill some knowledge gaps offshore of Maui, many information gaps remain in the Hawaiian Archipelago and Pacific Islands. This approach may be used to identify other potentially suitable areas for MHCs, helping scientists and resource managers prioritize sites, and focus their limited resources on areas that may be of higher scientific or conservation value.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Observed and predicted MHC distributions.The maps on the left show the location of Montipora, Leptoseris and Porites corals, and the maps on the right show the predicted distributions of Montipora, Leptoseris and Porites habitats. These predicted distributions were created by spatially averaging the 10 model replicates for each genus.
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pone.0130285.g004: Observed and predicted MHC distributions.The maps on the left show the location of Montipora, Leptoseris and Porites corals, and the maps on the right show the predicted distributions of Montipora, Leptoseris and Porites habitats. These predicted distributions were created by spatially averaging the 10 model replicates for each genus.

Mentions: Montipora, Leptoseris and Porites were observed in 3.8% (i.e., 605/15,766), 3.9% (i.e., 617/15,766) and 0.67% (i.e., 105/15,766) of the field observations, respectively. The average test AUCs calculated by MaxEnt and separately in R indicated ‘excellent to outstanding’ overall performance for the Montipora, Leptoseris and Porites models (Table 3). Montipora and Leptoseris were predicted to be rare throughout the study area with spatial predictions denoting a 0–1% chance of it occurring in 96.3% and 89.6% of the study area. Porites was predicted to be even less common and less likely to occur than Montipora and Leptoseris, with spatial predictions denoting a 0–1% chance of it occurring in 99.5% of the study area. For Montipora, probabilities for the remaining 3.7% of the study area ranged from 1.1% to 38.4%, with highest probabilities concentrated in four areas in the middle of the ‘Au‘au Channel. These areas include near the Lahaina Roads Basin, ~4.2 km off Launiupoko Point, and ~3.1 km off Hekili Point and ~3.7 km off Papawai Point (Fig 4). For Leptoseris, probabilities for the remaining 10.4% were higher, ranging from 1.1% to 60.7%, and were concentrated in the south/central region of the ‘Au‘au Channel off of Hekili and Papawai Points (Fig 4). High probabilities were also found along many edges of drowned basins and ridge tops with a hotspot located at 20°46’ N, 156°41’ S. For Porites, probabilities for the remaining 0.5% of the study area ranged from 1.1% to 67.3% and were focused region along the eastern side of the ‘Au‘au Channel. These regions included areas between Lahaina Roads Basin and Hekili Point with the main hotspot south of the Lahaina Pinnacles (Fig 4).


Identifying Suitable Locations for Mesophotic Hard Corals Offshore of Maui, Hawai'i.

Costa B, Kendall MS, Parrish FA, Rooney J, Boland RC, Chow M, Lecky J, Montgomery A, Spalding H - PLoS ONE (2015)

Observed and predicted MHC distributions.The maps on the left show the location of Montipora, Leptoseris and Porites corals, and the maps on the right show the predicted distributions of Montipora, Leptoseris and Porites habitats. These predicted distributions were created by spatially averaging the 10 model replicates for each genus.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4495987&req=5

pone.0130285.g004: Observed and predicted MHC distributions.The maps on the left show the location of Montipora, Leptoseris and Porites corals, and the maps on the right show the predicted distributions of Montipora, Leptoseris and Porites habitats. These predicted distributions were created by spatially averaging the 10 model replicates for each genus.
Mentions: Montipora, Leptoseris and Porites were observed in 3.8% (i.e., 605/15,766), 3.9% (i.e., 617/15,766) and 0.67% (i.e., 105/15,766) of the field observations, respectively. The average test AUCs calculated by MaxEnt and separately in R indicated ‘excellent to outstanding’ overall performance for the Montipora, Leptoseris and Porites models (Table 3). Montipora and Leptoseris were predicted to be rare throughout the study area with spatial predictions denoting a 0–1% chance of it occurring in 96.3% and 89.6% of the study area. Porites was predicted to be even less common and less likely to occur than Montipora and Leptoseris, with spatial predictions denoting a 0–1% chance of it occurring in 99.5% of the study area. For Montipora, probabilities for the remaining 3.7% of the study area ranged from 1.1% to 38.4%, with highest probabilities concentrated in four areas in the middle of the ‘Au‘au Channel. These areas include near the Lahaina Roads Basin, ~4.2 km off Launiupoko Point, and ~3.1 km off Hekili Point and ~3.7 km off Papawai Point (Fig 4). For Leptoseris, probabilities for the remaining 10.4% were higher, ranging from 1.1% to 60.7%, and were concentrated in the south/central region of the ‘Au‘au Channel off of Hekili and Papawai Points (Fig 4). High probabilities were also found along many edges of drowned basins and ridge tops with a hotspot located at 20°46’ N, 156°41’ S. For Porites, probabilities for the remaining 0.5% of the study area ranged from 1.1% to 67.3% and were focused region along the eastern side of the ‘Au‘au Channel. These regions included areas between Lahaina Roads Basin and Hekili Point with the main hotspot south of the Lahaina Pinnacles (Fig 4).

Bottom Line: MHC were concentrated between Hanaka'ō'ō and Papawai Points offshore of western Maui most likely because this area hosts warmer, clearer and calmer water conditions almost year round.While these predictions helped to fill some knowledge gaps offshore of Maui, many information gaps remain in the Hawaiian Archipelago and Pacific Islands.This approach may be used to identify other potentially suitable areas for MHCs, helping scientists and resource managers prioritize sites, and focus their limited resources on areas that may be of higher scientific or conservation value.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: National Centers for Coastal Ocean Science Biogeography Branch, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Silver Spring, Maryland, United States of America; CSS-Dynamac, Fairfax, Virginia, United States of America.

ABSTRACT
Mesophotic hard corals (MHC) are increasingly threatened by a growing number of anthropogenic stressors, including impacts from fishing, land-based sources of pollution, and ocean acidification. However, little is known about their geographic distributions (particularly around the Pacific islands) because it is logistically challenging and expensive to gather data in the 30 to 150 meter depth range where these organisms typically live. The goal of this study was to begin to fill this knowledge gap by modelling and predicting the spatial distribution of three genera of mesophotic hard corals offshore of Maui in the Main Hawaiian Islands. Maximum Entropy modeling software was used to create separate maps of predicted probability of occurrence and uncertainty for: (1) Leptoseris, (2) Montipora, and (3) Porites. Genera prevalence was derived from the in situ presence/absence data, and used to convert relative habitat suitability to probability of occurrence values. Approximately 1,300 georeferenced records of the occurrence of MHC, and 34 environmental predictors were used to train the model ensembles. Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) Area Under the Curve (AUC) values were between 0.89 and 0.97, indicating excellent overall model performance. Mean uncertainty and mean absolute error for the spatial predictions ranged from 0.006% to 0.05% and 3.73% to 17.6%, respectively. Depth, distance from shore, euphotic depth (mean and standard deviation) and sea surface temperature (mean and standard deviation) were identified as the six most influential predictor variables for partitioning habitats among the three genera. MHC were concentrated between Hanaka'ō'ō and Papawai Points offshore of western Maui most likely because this area hosts warmer, clearer and calmer water conditions almost year round. While these predictions helped to fill some knowledge gaps offshore of Maui, many information gaps remain in the Hawaiian Archipelago and Pacific Islands. This approach may be used to identify other potentially suitable areas for MHCs, helping scientists and resource managers prioritize sites, and focus their limited resources on areas that may be of higher scientific or conservation value.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus