Limits...
Variation in Foot Strike Patterns among Habitually Barefoot and Shod Runners in Kenya.

Lieberman DE, Castillo ER, Otarola-Castillo E, Sang MK, Sigei TK, Ojiambo R, Okutoyi P, Pitsiladis Y - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: This study used general linear mixed-effects models to explore both intra- and inter-individual variations in foot strike pattern among 48 Kalenjin-speaking participants from Kenya who varied in age, sex, body mass, height, running history, and habitual use of footwear.There was no effect of sex, age, height or weight on foot strike angle, but individuals were more likely to midfoot or forefoot strike when they ran on a stiff surface, had a high preferred stride frequency, were habitually barefoot, and had more experience running.It is hypothesized that strike type variation during running, including a more frequent use of forefoot and midfoot strikes, used to be greater before the introduction of cushioned shoes and paved surfaces.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Human Evolutionary Biology, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States of America.

ABSTRACT
Runners are often categorized as forefoot, midfoot or rearfoot strikers, but how much and why do individuals vary in foot strike patterns when running on level terrain? This study used general linear mixed-effects models to explore both intra- and inter-individual variations in foot strike pattern among 48 Kalenjin-speaking participants from Kenya who varied in age, sex, body mass, height, running history, and habitual use of footwear. High speed video was used to measure lower extremity kinematics at ground contact in the sagittal plane while participants ran down 13 meter-long tracks with three variables independently controlled: speed, track stiffness, and step frequency. 72% of the habitually barefoot and 32% of the habitually shod participants used multiple strike types, with significantly higher levels of foot strike variation among individuals who ran less frequently and who used lower step frequencies. There was no effect of sex, age, height or weight on foot strike angle, but individuals were more likely to midfoot or forefoot strike when they ran on a stiff surface, had a high preferred stride frequency, were habitually barefoot, and had more experience running. It is hypothesized that strike type variation during running, including a more frequent use of forefoot and midfoot strikes, used to be greater before the introduction of cushioned shoes and paved surfaces.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Variation in foot strike angle (FSA).Every FSA measured for every participant, noting which are forefoot (FFS), midfoot (MFS) and rearfoot (RFS) strikes. Note the greater degree of variability in the habitually barefoot individuals.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4495985&req=5

pone.0131354.g001: Variation in foot strike angle (FSA).Every FSA measured for every participant, noting which are forefoot (FFS), midfoot (MFS) and rearfoot (RFS) strikes. Note the greater degree of variability in the habitually barefoot individuals.

Mentions: Fig 1, which graphs the FSA and strike type of every trial of every subject, highlights the considerable variation in foot strike observed within subjects as well as between groups. Although average FSA was 1.1° ±5.3 among the habitually barefoot individuals and -8.3° ±6.1 among the habitually shod individuals, indicating that average strike type for each group was a FFS and RFS, respectively, a slight majority of individuals (56%) used more than one strike type. The average intra-individual variance for FSA was 20.65° ±3.12 s.e.


Variation in Foot Strike Patterns among Habitually Barefoot and Shod Runners in Kenya.

Lieberman DE, Castillo ER, Otarola-Castillo E, Sang MK, Sigei TK, Ojiambo R, Okutoyi P, Pitsiladis Y - PLoS ONE (2015)

Variation in foot strike angle (FSA).Every FSA measured for every participant, noting which are forefoot (FFS), midfoot (MFS) and rearfoot (RFS) strikes. Note the greater degree of variability in the habitually barefoot individuals.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4495985&req=5

pone.0131354.g001: Variation in foot strike angle (FSA).Every FSA measured for every participant, noting which are forefoot (FFS), midfoot (MFS) and rearfoot (RFS) strikes. Note the greater degree of variability in the habitually barefoot individuals.
Mentions: Fig 1, which graphs the FSA and strike type of every trial of every subject, highlights the considerable variation in foot strike observed within subjects as well as between groups. Although average FSA was 1.1° ±5.3 among the habitually barefoot individuals and -8.3° ±6.1 among the habitually shod individuals, indicating that average strike type for each group was a FFS and RFS, respectively, a slight majority of individuals (56%) used more than one strike type. The average intra-individual variance for FSA was 20.65° ±3.12 s.e.

Bottom Line: This study used general linear mixed-effects models to explore both intra- and inter-individual variations in foot strike pattern among 48 Kalenjin-speaking participants from Kenya who varied in age, sex, body mass, height, running history, and habitual use of footwear.There was no effect of sex, age, height or weight on foot strike angle, but individuals were more likely to midfoot or forefoot strike when they ran on a stiff surface, had a high preferred stride frequency, were habitually barefoot, and had more experience running.It is hypothesized that strike type variation during running, including a more frequent use of forefoot and midfoot strikes, used to be greater before the introduction of cushioned shoes and paved surfaces.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Human Evolutionary Biology, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States of America.

ABSTRACT
Runners are often categorized as forefoot, midfoot or rearfoot strikers, but how much and why do individuals vary in foot strike patterns when running on level terrain? This study used general linear mixed-effects models to explore both intra- and inter-individual variations in foot strike pattern among 48 Kalenjin-speaking participants from Kenya who varied in age, sex, body mass, height, running history, and habitual use of footwear. High speed video was used to measure lower extremity kinematics at ground contact in the sagittal plane while participants ran down 13 meter-long tracks with three variables independently controlled: speed, track stiffness, and step frequency. 72% of the habitually barefoot and 32% of the habitually shod participants used multiple strike types, with significantly higher levels of foot strike variation among individuals who ran less frequently and who used lower step frequencies. There was no effect of sex, age, height or weight on foot strike angle, but individuals were more likely to midfoot or forefoot strike when they ran on a stiff surface, had a high preferred stride frequency, were habitually barefoot, and had more experience running. It is hypothesized that strike type variation during running, including a more frequent use of forefoot and midfoot strikes, used to be greater before the introduction of cushioned shoes and paved surfaces.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus