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Bacterial Infection and Immune Responses in Lutzomyia longipalpis Sand Fly Larvae Midgut.

Heerman M, Weng JL, Hurwitz I, Durvasula R, Ramalho-Ortigao M - PLoS Negl Trop Dis (2015)

Bottom Line: Depending on the aspects of their development, insects can acquire microbes present in soil, water, and plants.Sand fly larval stages acquire microorganisms from the soil, and the abundance and distribution of these microorganisms may vary depending on the sand fly species or the breeding site.Moreover, bacterial distribution, and likely the ability to colonize the gut, is driven, at least in part, by a gradient of pH present in the gut.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Entomology, Kansas State University, Manhattan, Kansas, United States of America.

ABSTRACT
The midgut microbial community in insect vectors of disease is crucial for an effective immune response against infection with various human and animal pathogens. Depending on the aspects of their development, insects can acquire microbes present in soil, water, and plants. Sand flies are major vectors of leishmaniasis, and shown to harbor a wide variety of Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. Sand fly larval stages acquire microorganisms from the soil, and the abundance and distribution of these microorganisms may vary depending on the sand fly species or the breeding site. Here, we assess the distribution of two bacteria commonly found within the gut of sand flies, Pantoea agglomerans and Bacillus subtilis. We demonstrate that these bacteria are able to differentially infect the larval digestive tract, and regulate the immune response in sand fly larvae. Moreover, bacterial distribution, and likely the ability to colonize the gut, is driven, at least in part, by a gradient of pH present in the gut.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Effect of pH on in vitro growth of B. subtilis and P. agglomerans.Cultured bacteria were grown on LB-agar plates of pH varying from 6–9.5. The colony forming units are measured for Bs (A) and Pa (B). One way ANOVA, with a post hoc Tukey test, was performed to assess significance. pHs 6, 6.5, and 7 were statistically different than pH 9.5 (P<0.01 for pH 6 and 6.6; and P<0.05 for pH 7).
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pntd.0003923.g003: Effect of pH on in vitro growth of B. subtilis and P. agglomerans.Cultured bacteria were grown on LB-agar plates of pH varying from 6–9.5. The colony forming units are measured for Bs (A) and Pa (B). One way ANOVA, with a post hoc Tukey test, was performed to assess significance. pHs 6, 6.5, and 7 were statistically different than pH 9.5 (P<0.01 for pH 6 and 6.6; and P<0.05 for pH 7).

Mentions: Both Bs and Pa bacteria were grown on antibiotic supplemented LB-agar plates with pH ranging from 6 to 9.5. CFU counts were obtained in triplicate to assess the viability of the two strains at different pH (Fig 3A). Colonies of EGFP-expressing Bs did not show a significant difference in CFU counts at any given pH. Additionally, the colony size for Bs fed was smaller at low (6–6.5), and high (9.5) pH. However, Pa showed a significant difference in CFU counts at pH ranging from 6–7 with respect to pH 9.5 (Fig 3B). Also, at pH 8–9 colony size and fluorescent intensity began to decrease, and by pH 9.5 there was no visible growth.


Bacterial Infection and Immune Responses in Lutzomyia longipalpis Sand Fly Larvae Midgut.

Heerman M, Weng JL, Hurwitz I, Durvasula R, Ramalho-Ortigao M - PLoS Negl Trop Dis (2015)

Effect of pH on in vitro growth of B. subtilis and P. agglomerans.Cultured bacteria were grown on LB-agar plates of pH varying from 6–9.5. The colony forming units are measured for Bs (A) and Pa (B). One way ANOVA, with a post hoc Tukey test, was performed to assess significance. pHs 6, 6.5, and 7 were statistically different than pH 9.5 (P<0.01 for pH 6 and 6.6; and P<0.05 for pH 7).
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4495979&req=5

pntd.0003923.g003: Effect of pH on in vitro growth of B. subtilis and P. agglomerans.Cultured bacteria were grown on LB-agar plates of pH varying from 6–9.5. The colony forming units are measured for Bs (A) and Pa (B). One way ANOVA, with a post hoc Tukey test, was performed to assess significance. pHs 6, 6.5, and 7 were statistically different than pH 9.5 (P<0.01 for pH 6 and 6.6; and P<0.05 for pH 7).
Mentions: Both Bs and Pa bacteria were grown on antibiotic supplemented LB-agar plates with pH ranging from 6 to 9.5. CFU counts were obtained in triplicate to assess the viability of the two strains at different pH (Fig 3A). Colonies of EGFP-expressing Bs did not show a significant difference in CFU counts at any given pH. Additionally, the colony size for Bs fed was smaller at low (6–6.5), and high (9.5) pH. However, Pa showed a significant difference in CFU counts at pH ranging from 6–7 with respect to pH 9.5 (Fig 3B). Also, at pH 8–9 colony size and fluorescent intensity began to decrease, and by pH 9.5 there was no visible growth.

Bottom Line: Depending on the aspects of their development, insects can acquire microbes present in soil, water, and plants.Sand fly larval stages acquire microorganisms from the soil, and the abundance and distribution of these microorganisms may vary depending on the sand fly species or the breeding site.Moreover, bacterial distribution, and likely the ability to colonize the gut, is driven, at least in part, by a gradient of pH present in the gut.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Entomology, Kansas State University, Manhattan, Kansas, United States of America.

ABSTRACT
The midgut microbial community in insect vectors of disease is crucial for an effective immune response against infection with various human and animal pathogens. Depending on the aspects of their development, insects can acquire microbes present in soil, water, and plants. Sand flies are major vectors of leishmaniasis, and shown to harbor a wide variety of Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. Sand fly larval stages acquire microorganisms from the soil, and the abundance and distribution of these microorganisms may vary depending on the sand fly species or the breeding site. Here, we assess the distribution of two bacteria commonly found within the gut of sand flies, Pantoea agglomerans and Bacillus subtilis. We demonstrate that these bacteria are able to differentially infect the larval digestive tract, and regulate the immune response in sand fly larvae. Moreover, bacterial distribution, and likely the ability to colonize the gut, is driven, at least in part, by a gradient of pH present in the gut.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus