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Outbreak of febrile illness caused by coxsackievirus A4 in a nursery school in Beijing, China.

Li JS, Dong XG, Qin M, Xie ZP, Gao HC, Yang JY, Yang XX, Li DD, Li J, Duan ZJ - Virol. J. (2015)

Bottom Line: CV-A4, an etiological agent of hand, foot, and mouth disease, affects children worldwide and can circulate in closed environments such as schools and hospitals for long periods.An outbreak of febrile illness at a nursery school in Beijing, China, was confirmed to be caused by CV-A4.This outbreak was controlled by effective measures.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: National Institute for Viral Disease Control and Prevention, China CDC, 100 Ying-Xin St., Xuan-Wu District, Beijing, 100052, China. lionalex@126.com.

ABSTRACT

Background: Coxsackievirus A4 (CV-A4) is classified as human enterovirus A according to its serotype. CV-A4, an etiological agent of hand, foot, and mouth disease, affects children worldwide and can circulate in closed environments such as schools and hospitals for long periods.

Findings: An outbreak of febrile illness at a nursery school in Beijing, China, was confirmed to be caused by CV-A4. Phylogenetic analysis of the complete genome of the isolated strain showed that the virus belongs to the same cluster as the predominant CV-A4 strain in China. This outbreak was controlled by effective measures.

Conclusions: The early identification of the pathogen and timely intervention may be the most critical factors in controlling an outbreak caused by CV-A4 in a preschool.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Phylogenetic analysis of the pathogens isolated during the outbreak. A phylogenetic analysis of the nucleotide sequences of the viruses isolated during the outbreak: (a) the three partial VP1 sequences of CVA-4; (b) the near-complete nucleotide sequences of strains of human Coxsackie A virus. Phylogenetic analysis was performed and the tree was constructed using the neighbor-joining algorithm implemented in the MEGA version 5.0 software with 1000 bootstrap pseudoreplicates. The numbers on the branches indicate the bootstrap values, excluding those of < 70 % for clarity. Human rhinoviruses (HRVs) were used as outgroups on both trees. Red dots show the CV-A4 strains isolated in this study and the black dots show the only complete genome of CV-A4 in the GenBank database
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Fig2: Phylogenetic analysis of the pathogens isolated during the outbreak. A phylogenetic analysis of the nucleotide sequences of the viruses isolated during the outbreak: (a) the three partial VP1 sequences of CVA-4; (b) the near-complete nucleotide sequences of strains of human Coxsackie A virus. Phylogenetic analysis was performed and the tree was constructed using the neighbor-joining algorithm implemented in the MEGA version 5.0 software with 1000 bootstrap pseudoreplicates. The numbers on the branches indicate the bootstrap values, excluding those of < 70 % for clarity. Human rhinoviruses (HRVs) were used as outgroups on both trees. Red dots show the CV-A4 strains isolated in this study and the black dots show the only complete genome of CV-A4 in the GenBank database

Mentions: In a phylogenetic analysis of the near-complete genome of the CV-A4 strain isolated in this outbreak, it clustered with the only two complete genomes of CV-A4 deposited in the GenBank database (Fig. 2). Analysis of a 3′ partial VP1 sequence, showed all CV-A4 isolates from this outbreak clustered on the same branch and were closely related to the predominant CV-A4 strains JL/CHN/2006 (GenBank: JQ715709) and SD/CHN/2008 (GenBank: GQ253374). All CV-A4 isolates from mainland China, Japan, India, and Taiwan, including CV-A4-mainland (GenBank: HQ728260), formed a subgenogroup, and isolates from the USA formed another subgenogroup within genotype III. Global CV-A4 strains show regional variations and were classed into three genotypes based on their 3′ partial VP1 sequences [3, 18]. Our results indicate that the CV-A4 strain isolated in this study probably also varies across its geographic distribution (Fig. 2). This CV-A4 strain is the predominant strain in China, resulting from the rapid lineage turnover of CV-A4 and the replacement of previously circulating strains by this new dominant variant [18].Fig. 2


Outbreak of febrile illness caused by coxsackievirus A4 in a nursery school in Beijing, China.

Li JS, Dong XG, Qin M, Xie ZP, Gao HC, Yang JY, Yang XX, Li DD, Li J, Duan ZJ - Virol. J. (2015)

Phylogenetic analysis of the pathogens isolated during the outbreak. A phylogenetic analysis of the nucleotide sequences of the viruses isolated during the outbreak: (a) the three partial VP1 sequences of CVA-4; (b) the near-complete nucleotide sequences of strains of human Coxsackie A virus. Phylogenetic analysis was performed and the tree was constructed using the neighbor-joining algorithm implemented in the MEGA version 5.0 software with 1000 bootstrap pseudoreplicates. The numbers on the branches indicate the bootstrap values, excluding those of < 70 % for clarity. Human rhinoviruses (HRVs) were used as outgroups on both trees. Red dots show the CV-A4 strains isolated in this study and the black dots show the only complete genome of CV-A4 in the GenBank database
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4495935&req=5

Fig2: Phylogenetic analysis of the pathogens isolated during the outbreak. A phylogenetic analysis of the nucleotide sequences of the viruses isolated during the outbreak: (a) the three partial VP1 sequences of CVA-4; (b) the near-complete nucleotide sequences of strains of human Coxsackie A virus. Phylogenetic analysis was performed and the tree was constructed using the neighbor-joining algorithm implemented in the MEGA version 5.0 software with 1000 bootstrap pseudoreplicates. The numbers on the branches indicate the bootstrap values, excluding those of < 70 % for clarity. Human rhinoviruses (HRVs) were used as outgroups on both trees. Red dots show the CV-A4 strains isolated in this study and the black dots show the only complete genome of CV-A4 in the GenBank database
Mentions: In a phylogenetic analysis of the near-complete genome of the CV-A4 strain isolated in this outbreak, it clustered with the only two complete genomes of CV-A4 deposited in the GenBank database (Fig. 2). Analysis of a 3′ partial VP1 sequence, showed all CV-A4 isolates from this outbreak clustered on the same branch and were closely related to the predominant CV-A4 strains JL/CHN/2006 (GenBank: JQ715709) and SD/CHN/2008 (GenBank: GQ253374). All CV-A4 isolates from mainland China, Japan, India, and Taiwan, including CV-A4-mainland (GenBank: HQ728260), formed a subgenogroup, and isolates from the USA formed another subgenogroup within genotype III. Global CV-A4 strains show regional variations and were classed into three genotypes based on their 3′ partial VP1 sequences [3, 18]. Our results indicate that the CV-A4 strain isolated in this study probably also varies across its geographic distribution (Fig. 2). This CV-A4 strain is the predominant strain in China, resulting from the rapid lineage turnover of CV-A4 and the replacement of previously circulating strains by this new dominant variant [18].Fig. 2

Bottom Line: CV-A4, an etiological agent of hand, foot, and mouth disease, affects children worldwide and can circulate in closed environments such as schools and hospitals for long periods.An outbreak of febrile illness at a nursery school in Beijing, China, was confirmed to be caused by CV-A4.This outbreak was controlled by effective measures.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: National Institute for Viral Disease Control and Prevention, China CDC, 100 Ying-Xin St., Xuan-Wu District, Beijing, 100052, China. lionalex@126.com.

ABSTRACT

Background: Coxsackievirus A4 (CV-A4) is classified as human enterovirus A according to its serotype. CV-A4, an etiological agent of hand, foot, and mouth disease, affects children worldwide and can circulate in closed environments such as schools and hospitals for long periods.

Findings: An outbreak of febrile illness at a nursery school in Beijing, China, was confirmed to be caused by CV-A4. Phylogenetic analysis of the complete genome of the isolated strain showed that the virus belongs to the same cluster as the predominant CV-A4 strain in China. This outbreak was controlled by effective measures.

Conclusions: The early identification of the pathogen and timely intervention may be the most critical factors in controlling an outbreak caused by CV-A4 in a preschool.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus