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The Influence of Seasonal Frugivory on Nutrient and Energy Intake in Wild Western Gorillas.

Masi S, Mundry R, Ortmann S, Cipolletta C, Boitani L, Robbins MM - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: Intake of dry matter, fibers, fat, protein and the majority of minerals and phenols decreased with increased frugivory and there was some indication of seasonal variation in intake of energy (KCal/g OM), tannins, protein/fiber ratio, and iron.Macronutrients and micronutrients, but not digestible energy, may be limited for them during times of low fruit availability because they are hind-gut fermenters.We discuss the advantages of seasonal frugivores having large dietary breath and flexibility, significant characteristics to consider in the conservation strategies of endangered species.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, D-04103, Leipzig, Germany; Department of Animal and Human Biology, University of Rome "La Sapienza", 00185, Rome, Italy.

ABSTRACT
The daily energy requirements of animals are determined by a combination of physical and physiological factors, but food availability may challenge the capacity to meet nutritional needs. Western gorillas (Gorilla gorilla) are an interesting model for investigating this topic because they are folivore-frugivores that adjust their diet and activities to seasonal variation in fruit availability. Observations of one habituated group of western gorillas in Bai-Hokou, Central African Republic (December 2004-December 2005) were used to examine seasonal variation in diet quality and nutritional intake. We tested if during the high fruit season the food consumed by western gorillas was higher in quality (higher in energy, sugar, fat but lower in fibre and antifeedants) than during the low fruit season. Food consumed during the high fruit season was higher in digestible energy, but not any other macronutrients. Second, we investigated whether the gorillas increased their daily intake of carbohydrates, metabolizable energy (KCal/g OM), or other nutrients during the high fruit season. Intake of dry matter, fibers, fat, protein and the majority of minerals and phenols decreased with increased frugivory and there was some indication of seasonal variation in intake of energy (KCal/g OM), tannins, protein/fiber ratio, and iron. Intake of non-structural carbohydrates and sugars was not influenced by fruit availability. Gorillas are probably able to extract large quantities of energy via fermentation since they rely on proteinaceous leaves during the low fruit season. Macronutrients and micronutrients, but not digestible energy, may be limited for them during times of low fruit availability because they are hind-gut fermenters. We discuss the advantages of seasonal frugivores having large dietary breath and flexibility, significant characteristics to consider in the conservation strategies of endangered species.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Nutrient intake (Factor 1 of PCA; see Tables 3–4a) at times of different food availability.The line shows the relation between the nutrient intake variables included in factor 1 and food availability as estimated with a GLMM (the model corresponds to that depicted in Table 5). Bold vertical lines indicate medians; boxes show the first and third quartiles, vertical lines the percentiles 2.5 and 97.5% and laying crosses denote the minimum and maximum. Numbers on the top of the graph denote the sample size.
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pone.0129254.g003: Nutrient intake (Factor 1 of PCA; see Tables 3–4a) at times of different food availability.The line shows the relation between the nutrient intake variables included in factor 1 and food availability as estimated with a GLMM (the model corresponds to that depicted in Table 5). Bold vertical lines indicate medians; boxes show the first and third quartiles, vertical lines the percentiles 2.5 and 97.5% and laying crosses denote the minimum and maximum. Numbers on the top of the graph denote the sample size.

Mentions: As expected, fruit availability had a general impact on dietary intake (Fisher's omnibus test, combining four tests of the impact of fruit availability on the four nutrient factors: χ2 = 26.29, df = 8, P = 0.001), however the overall significance of the test was solely due to factor 1 or “General intake” (intake of dry matter, fibers, fat, protein and majority of minerals and phenols) which decreased with increasing fruit availably (Estimate±SE = -0.105±0.010, P<0.001; Fig 3; Table 3). A trend was revealed for the effect of fruit availability on PC2 or“Energy Intake” (intake of energy (KCal/g OM), sugars and non-structural carbohydrates; 0.020±0.011, P = 0.074). Contrary to what was predicted, the intake of the other two nutrient factors, including energy intake (KCal/g OM), was not significantly influenced by fruit availability (Table 4).


The Influence of Seasonal Frugivory on Nutrient and Energy Intake in Wild Western Gorillas.

Masi S, Mundry R, Ortmann S, Cipolletta C, Boitani L, Robbins MM - PLoS ONE (2015)

Nutrient intake (Factor 1 of PCA; see Tables 3–4a) at times of different food availability.The line shows the relation between the nutrient intake variables included in factor 1 and food availability as estimated with a GLMM (the model corresponds to that depicted in Table 5). Bold vertical lines indicate medians; boxes show the first and third quartiles, vertical lines the percentiles 2.5 and 97.5% and laying crosses denote the minimum and maximum. Numbers on the top of the graph denote the sample size.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4495928&req=5

pone.0129254.g003: Nutrient intake (Factor 1 of PCA; see Tables 3–4a) at times of different food availability.The line shows the relation between the nutrient intake variables included in factor 1 and food availability as estimated with a GLMM (the model corresponds to that depicted in Table 5). Bold vertical lines indicate medians; boxes show the first and third quartiles, vertical lines the percentiles 2.5 and 97.5% and laying crosses denote the minimum and maximum. Numbers on the top of the graph denote the sample size.
Mentions: As expected, fruit availability had a general impact on dietary intake (Fisher's omnibus test, combining four tests of the impact of fruit availability on the four nutrient factors: χ2 = 26.29, df = 8, P = 0.001), however the overall significance of the test was solely due to factor 1 or “General intake” (intake of dry matter, fibers, fat, protein and majority of minerals and phenols) which decreased with increasing fruit availably (Estimate±SE = -0.105±0.010, P<0.001; Fig 3; Table 3). A trend was revealed for the effect of fruit availability on PC2 or“Energy Intake” (intake of energy (KCal/g OM), sugars and non-structural carbohydrates; 0.020±0.011, P = 0.074). Contrary to what was predicted, the intake of the other two nutrient factors, including energy intake (KCal/g OM), was not significantly influenced by fruit availability (Table 4).

Bottom Line: Intake of dry matter, fibers, fat, protein and the majority of minerals and phenols decreased with increased frugivory and there was some indication of seasonal variation in intake of energy (KCal/g OM), tannins, protein/fiber ratio, and iron.Macronutrients and micronutrients, but not digestible energy, may be limited for them during times of low fruit availability because they are hind-gut fermenters.We discuss the advantages of seasonal frugivores having large dietary breath and flexibility, significant characteristics to consider in the conservation strategies of endangered species.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, D-04103, Leipzig, Germany; Department of Animal and Human Biology, University of Rome "La Sapienza", 00185, Rome, Italy.

ABSTRACT
The daily energy requirements of animals are determined by a combination of physical and physiological factors, but food availability may challenge the capacity to meet nutritional needs. Western gorillas (Gorilla gorilla) are an interesting model for investigating this topic because they are folivore-frugivores that adjust their diet and activities to seasonal variation in fruit availability. Observations of one habituated group of western gorillas in Bai-Hokou, Central African Republic (December 2004-December 2005) were used to examine seasonal variation in diet quality and nutritional intake. We tested if during the high fruit season the food consumed by western gorillas was higher in quality (higher in energy, sugar, fat but lower in fibre and antifeedants) than during the low fruit season. Food consumed during the high fruit season was higher in digestible energy, but not any other macronutrients. Second, we investigated whether the gorillas increased their daily intake of carbohydrates, metabolizable energy (KCal/g OM), or other nutrients during the high fruit season. Intake of dry matter, fibers, fat, protein and the majority of minerals and phenols decreased with increased frugivory and there was some indication of seasonal variation in intake of energy (KCal/g OM), tannins, protein/fiber ratio, and iron. Intake of non-structural carbohydrates and sugars was not influenced by fruit availability. Gorillas are probably able to extract large quantities of energy via fermentation since they rely on proteinaceous leaves during the low fruit season. Macronutrients and micronutrients, but not digestible energy, may be limited for them during times of low fruit availability because they are hind-gut fermenters. We discuss the advantages of seasonal frugivores having large dietary breath and flexibility, significant characteristics to consider in the conservation strategies of endangered species.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus