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Range-Wide Genetic Analysis of Little Brown Bat (Myotis lucifugus) Populations: Estimating the Risk of Spread of White-Nose Syndrome.

Vonhof MJ, Russell AL, Miller-Butterworth CM - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: We identified considerable spatial variation in patterns of female dispersal and significant genetic variation between populations in eastern versus western portions of the range.However, patterns of mtDNA differentiation are highly variable, with high ΦST values between most sample pairs (including between all western samples, between western and eastern samples, and between some eastern samples), while low mitochondrial differentiation was observed within two groups of samples found in central and eastern regions of North America.Furthermore, the Alaskan population was highly differentiated from all others, and western populations were characterized by isolation by distance while eastern populations were not.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Biological Sciences, Western Michigan University, Kalamazoo, Michigan, United States of America; Environmental and Sustainability Studies Program, Western Michigan University, Kalamazoo, Michigan, United States of America.

ABSTRACT
The little brown bat (Myotis lucifugus) is one of the most widespread bat species in North America and is experiencing severe population declines because of an emerging fungal disease, white-nose syndrome (WNS). To manage and conserve this species effectively it is important to understand patterns of gene flow and population connectivity to identify possible barriers to disease transmission. However, little is known about the population genetic structure of little brown bats, and to date, no studies have investigated population structure across their entire range. We examined mitochondrial DNA and nuclear microsatellites in 637 little brown bats (including all currently recognized subspecific lineages) from 29 locations across North America, to assess levels of genetic variation and population differentiation across the range of the species, including areas affected by WNS and those currently unaffected. We identified considerable spatial variation in patterns of female dispersal and significant genetic variation between populations in eastern versus western portions of the range. Overall levels of nuclear genetic differentiation were low, and there is no evidence for any major barriers to gene flow across their range. However, patterns of mtDNA differentiation are highly variable, with high ΦST values between most sample pairs (including between all western samples, between western and eastern samples, and between some eastern samples), while low mitochondrial differentiation was observed within two groups of samples found in central and eastern regions of North America. Furthermore, the Alaskan population was highly differentiated from all others, and western populations were characterized by isolation by distance while eastern populations were not. These data raise the possibility that the current patterns of spread of WNS observed in eastern North America may not apply to the entire range and that there may be broad-scale spatial variation in the risk of WNS transmission and occurrence if the disease continues to spread west.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Phylogenetic tree showing relationships between Nearctic Myotis (sensu [58]), and the presence of three distinct clades within M. lucifugus, based on maximum likelihood analysis of partial COI sequences in PhyML 3.0.A member of the Neotropical Myotis clade (M. austroriparius) was included as the outgroup. Leaves are collapsed to highlight well-supported clades, and the vertical dimension of the triangles is proportional to the number of samples included. SH-like branch support values are provided for all major clades. Clades containing M. lucifugus are designated by the specific abbreviation followed by the subspecies name (e.g., M. l. lucifugus refers to the nominal subspecies). Note that one clade (including M. l. carissima) also contains members of other species (including M. evotis, M. keenii, and M. thysanodes) as previously described [32].
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pone.0128713.g002: Phylogenetic tree showing relationships between Nearctic Myotis (sensu [58]), and the presence of three distinct clades within M. lucifugus, based on maximum likelihood analysis of partial COI sequences in PhyML 3.0.A member of the Neotropical Myotis clade (M. austroriparius) was included as the outgroup. Leaves are collapsed to highlight well-supported clades, and the vertical dimension of the triangles is proportional to the number of samples included. SH-like branch support values are provided for all major clades. Clades containing M. lucifugus are designated by the specific abbreviation followed by the subspecies name (e.g., M. l. lucifugus refers to the nominal subspecies). Note that one clade (including M. l. carissima) also contains members of other species (including M. evotis, M. keenii, and M. thysanodes) as previously described [32].

Mentions: a) shows sampling locations with pie charts indicating frequencies of mtDNA subspecific clades (subspecific designations are indicated in the legend and colors follow those used in Fig 2) in each population, while b) shows groupings of populations (orange and blue dots) within which pairwise ΦST values based on mtDNA haplotype frequencies were low versus populations that were significantly differentiated from all other populations (purple dots; high pairwise ΦST values with all other sampled populations). One sampled population in Michigan (shown with a black dot in a) was not included in mtDNA analyses. Population abbreviations are detailed in Table 1, and colors in pie charts in a) correspond to clades shown in Fig 2. Data sources for the map include: nationalatlas.gov, iucnredlist.org, and ESRI Data & Maps 2006 through ArcGIS (S1 File).


Range-Wide Genetic Analysis of Little Brown Bat (Myotis lucifugus) Populations: Estimating the Risk of Spread of White-Nose Syndrome.

Vonhof MJ, Russell AL, Miller-Butterworth CM - PLoS ONE (2015)

Phylogenetic tree showing relationships between Nearctic Myotis (sensu [58]), and the presence of three distinct clades within M. lucifugus, based on maximum likelihood analysis of partial COI sequences in PhyML 3.0.A member of the Neotropical Myotis clade (M. austroriparius) was included as the outgroup. Leaves are collapsed to highlight well-supported clades, and the vertical dimension of the triangles is proportional to the number of samples included. SH-like branch support values are provided for all major clades. Clades containing M. lucifugus are designated by the specific abbreviation followed by the subspecies name (e.g., M. l. lucifugus refers to the nominal subspecies). Note that one clade (including M. l. carissima) also contains members of other species (including M. evotis, M. keenii, and M. thysanodes) as previously described [32].
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4495924&req=5

pone.0128713.g002: Phylogenetic tree showing relationships between Nearctic Myotis (sensu [58]), and the presence of three distinct clades within M. lucifugus, based on maximum likelihood analysis of partial COI sequences in PhyML 3.0.A member of the Neotropical Myotis clade (M. austroriparius) was included as the outgroup. Leaves are collapsed to highlight well-supported clades, and the vertical dimension of the triangles is proportional to the number of samples included. SH-like branch support values are provided for all major clades. Clades containing M. lucifugus are designated by the specific abbreviation followed by the subspecies name (e.g., M. l. lucifugus refers to the nominal subspecies). Note that one clade (including M. l. carissima) also contains members of other species (including M. evotis, M. keenii, and M. thysanodes) as previously described [32].
Mentions: a) shows sampling locations with pie charts indicating frequencies of mtDNA subspecific clades (subspecific designations are indicated in the legend and colors follow those used in Fig 2) in each population, while b) shows groupings of populations (orange and blue dots) within which pairwise ΦST values based on mtDNA haplotype frequencies were low versus populations that were significantly differentiated from all other populations (purple dots; high pairwise ΦST values with all other sampled populations). One sampled population in Michigan (shown with a black dot in a) was not included in mtDNA analyses. Population abbreviations are detailed in Table 1, and colors in pie charts in a) correspond to clades shown in Fig 2. Data sources for the map include: nationalatlas.gov, iucnredlist.org, and ESRI Data & Maps 2006 through ArcGIS (S1 File).

Bottom Line: We identified considerable spatial variation in patterns of female dispersal and significant genetic variation between populations in eastern versus western portions of the range.However, patterns of mtDNA differentiation are highly variable, with high ΦST values between most sample pairs (including between all western samples, between western and eastern samples, and between some eastern samples), while low mitochondrial differentiation was observed within two groups of samples found in central and eastern regions of North America.Furthermore, the Alaskan population was highly differentiated from all others, and western populations were characterized by isolation by distance while eastern populations were not.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Biological Sciences, Western Michigan University, Kalamazoo, Michigan, United States of America; Environmental and Sustainability Studies Program, Western Michigan University, Kalamazoo, Michigan, United States of America.

ABSTRACT
The little brown bat (Myotis lucifugus) is one of the most widespread bat species in North America and is experiencing severe population declines because of an emerging fungal disease, white-nose syndrome (WNS). To manage and conserve this species effectively it is important to understand patterns of gene flow and population connectivity to identify possible barriers to disease transmission. However, little is known about the population genetic structure of little brown bats, and to date, no studies have investigated population structure across their entire range. We examined mitochondrial DNA and nuclear microsatellites in 637 little brown bats (including all currently recognized subspecific lineages) from 29 locations across North America, to assess levels of genetic variation and population differentiation across the range of the species, including areas affected by WNS and those currently unaffected. We identified considerable spatial variation in patterns of female dispersal and significant genetic variation between populations in eastern versus western portions of the range. Overall levels of nuclear genetic differentiation were low, and there is no evidence for any major barriers to gene flow across their range. However, patterns of mtDNA differentiation are highly variable, with high ΦST values between most sample pairs (including between all western samples, between western and eastern samples, and between some eastern samples), while low mitochondrial differentiation was observed within two groups of samples found in central and eastern regions of North America. Furthermore, the Alaskan population was highly differentiated from all others, and western populations were characterized by isolation by distance while eastern populations were not. These data raise the possibility that the current patterns of spread of WNS observed in eastern North America may not apply to the entire range and that there may be broad-scale spatial variation in the risk of WNS transmission and occurrence if the disease continues to spread west.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus