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Factors affecting home gardens ownership, diversity and structure: a case study from Benin.

Gbedomon RC, Fandohan AB, Salako VK, Idohou AF, Kakaї RG, Assogbadjo AE - J Ethnobiol Ethnomed (2015)

Bottom Line: Larger and more diversified HGs were found in sub-humid and semi-arid zones while smaller and less diversified HGs were encountered in the humid zone.Results suggest effects of complex interactions between socio-economic factors on HG ownership, and influence of these effects combined with intrinsic characteristics of HGs on PD.Interventions are required to interfere with declining PD in HG across generations to accommodate multiple ecosystem service benefits.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Laboratory of Biomathematics and Forest Estimations, Faculty of Agronomic Sciences, University of Abomey-Calavi, 04 BP 1525, Cotonou, Benin. gbedomon@gmail.com.

ABSTRACT

Background: Home gardens (HGs) provide perspectives for conservation of plant genetic resources while contributing to improving livelihoods. However, knowledge of local factors shaping their ownership, plant diversity (PD) and structure is still limited especially in West-Africa, where food insecurity is acute. This is critical to ensure effective mainstreaming of HGs into future biodiversity conservation and food production policies.

Methods: Socio-economic and PD data were obtained from individual interviews (n = 470) and gardens inventories (n = 235) spanning humid, sub-humid and semi-arid zones of Benin. Generalised Linear Models, Hierarchical Cluster Analysis, Principal Component Analysis and Simple Correspondence Analysis were performed to examine socio-economic characteristics (age, gender, education level and main economic activity) affecting HGs ownership, and their effect coupled with intrinsic HGs characteristics (size, age) on PD and structure within HGs, across contrasting bio-geographical regions.

Results: HG ownership was significantly dependent upon a complex relationship between age, gender and education level of the farmers. The probability to own HG increased with age with an early involvement in home gardening for women. Similarly, with increasing age, it was more likely to find a male owner than a female owner among the uneducated informants and those of primary school. Inversely, it was more likely to find female owner than a male owner among secondary school level or more. PD increased with increasing owner age and size of the HG. Larger and more diversified HGs were found in sub-humid and semi-arid zones while smaller and less diversified HGs were encountered in the humid zone. HGs were multi-layered. Based on the prevailing plant groups, three categories of HG were distinguished: Herb based gardens, Herb and Shrub/Trees based gardens, and Palm and Liana based gardens. Their prevalence was dependent upon bio-geographical zones and HG owner socio-economic characteristics, with herbs based HGs being mainly associated to women.

Conclusion: Results suggest effects of complex interactions between socio-economic factors on HG ownership, and influence of these effects combined with intrinsic characteristics of HGs on PD. The early involvement of women in home gardening and their particular interest in herbs and shrubs are important assets for future conservation strategies based on HG and food production. Interventions are required to interfere with declining PD in HG across generations to accommodate multiple ecosystem service benefits.

No MeSH data available.


Effect of age, gender, education level and their interactions on HG ownership
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Fig2: Effect of age, gender, education level and their interactions on HG ownership

Mentions: Regardless of their status (HG owner or not), informants interviewed were mostly male (64 %) but there were more females among informants with home gardens than informants without home gardens (respectively 44 % and 29 %). The proportion of adult and old people (age >30) was higher among HG owners as compared to non-owners (88 % vs. 64 %). Farming was the predominant activity among informants regardless of HG ownership (61 % and 56 %, respectively for owners and non-owners). Respectively 37 % and 44 % of HG owners and non- owners were uneducated (never attended the school). Among the four explanatory variables abovementioned (gender, age, education level and main economic activity), only three i.e. gender, age and education level were retained in the model after stepwise selection. Furthermore, only the “age of HG owner” was found to significantly determine ownership of HG (p-value < 0.001, Table 2). Regardless of gender and education level, age is positively correlated with HG ownership (0.094; Table 2, Fig. 2a). Significant interactions included age ~ gender (p-value <0.026), age ~ education level (p-value <0.014) and age ~ gender ~ education level (p-value <0.002) (Fig. 2a, Table 2), indicating that the effect of age was respectively gender-dependent, education level-dependent and both gender and education level dependent. Irrespective of education level, it was more likely to find a female owner than a male owner with increasing age (Table 2, Fig. 2b). But the reverse case was true beyond 70 years old (Table 2, Fig. 2b). Similarly, with increasing age and irrespective of the gender, most owner are educated at primary school level (Table 2, Fig. 2c). Finally, with increasing age, the uneducated informants and those with primary school education contained more males than females HG owners, while among the informants of secondary school level or more, there were more females than males HG owners (Table 2, Fig. 2d).Table 1


Factors affecting home gardens ownership, diversity and structure: a case study from Benin.

Gbedomon RC, Fandohan AB, Salako VK, Idohou AF, Kakaї RG, Assogbadjo AE - J Ethnobiol Ethnomed (2015)

Effect of age, gender, education level and their interactions on HG ownership
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4495805&req=5

Fig2: Effect of age, gender, education level and their interactions on HG ownership
Mentions: Regardless of their status (HG owner or not), informants interviewed were mostly male (64 %) but there were more females among informants with home gardens than informants without home gardens (respectively 44 % and 29 %). The proportion of adult and old people (age >30) was higher among HG owners as compared to non-owners (88 % vs. 64 %). Farming was the predominant activity among informants regardless of HG ownership (61 % and 56 %, respectively for owners and non-owners). Respectively 37 % and 44 % of HG owners and non- owners were uneducated (never attended the school). Among the four explanatory variables abovementioned (gender, age, education level and main economic activity), only three i.e. gender, age and education level were retained in the model after stepwise selection. Furthermore, only the “age of HG owner” was found to significantly determine ownership of HG (p-value < 0.001, Table 2). Regardless of gender and education level, age is positively correlated with HG ownership (0.094; Table 2, Fig. 2a). Significant interactions included age ~ gender (p-value <0.026), age ~ education level (p-value <0.014) and age ~ gender ~ education level (p-value <0.002) (Fig. 2a, Table 2), indicating that the effect of age was respectively gender-dependent, education level-dependent and both gender and education level dependent. Irrespective of education level, it was more likely to find a female owner than a male owner with increasing age (Table 2, Fig. 2b). But the reverse case was true beyond 70 years old (Table 2, Fig. 2b). Similarly, with increasing age and irrespective of the gender, most owner are educated at primary school level (Table 2, Fig. 2c). Finally, with increasing age, the uneducated informants and those with primary school education contained more males than females HG owners, while among the informants of secondary school level or more, there were more females than males HG owners (Table 2, Fig. 2d).Table 1

Bottom Line: Larger and more diversified HGs were found in sub-humid and semi-arid zones while smaller and less diversified HGs were encountered in the humid zone.Results suggest effects of complex interactions between socio-economic factors on HG ownership, and influence of these effects combined with intrinsic characteristics of HGs on PD.Interventions are required to interfere with declining PD in HG across generations to accommodate multiple ecosystem service benefits.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Laboratory of Biomathematics and Forest Estimations, Faculty of Agronomic Sciences, University of Abomey-Calavi, 04 BP 1525, Cotonou, Benin. gbedomon@gmail.com.

ABSTRACT

Background: Home gardens (HGs) provide perspectives for conservation of plant genetic resources while contributing to improving livelihoods. However, knowledge of local factors shaping their ownership, plant diversity (PD) and structure is still limited especially in West-Africa, where food insecurity is acute. This is critical to ensure effective mainstreaming of HGs into future biodiversity conservation and food production policies.

Methods: Socio-economic and PD data were obtained from individual interviews (n = 470) and gardens inventories (n = 235) spanning humid, sub-humid and semi-arid zones of Benin. Generalised Linear Models, Hierarchical Cluster Analysis, Principal Component Analysis and Simple Correspondence Analysis were performed to examine socio-economic characteristics (age, gender, education level and main economic activity) affecting HGs ownership, and their effect coupled with intrinsic HGs characteristics (size, age) on PD and structure within HGs, across contrasting bio-geographical regions.

Results: HG ownership was significantly dependent upon a complex relationship between age, gender and education level of the farmers. The probability to own HG increased with age with an early involvement in home gardening for women. Similarly, with increasing age, it was more likely to find a male owner than a female owner among the uneducated informants and those of primary school. Inversely, it was more likely to find female owner than a male owner among secondary school level or more. PD increased with increasing owner age and size of the HG. Larger and more diversified HGs were found in sub-humid and semi-arid zones while smaller and less diversified HGs were encountered in the humid zone. HGs were multi-layered. Based on the prevailing plant groups, three categories of HG were distinguished: Herb based gardens, Herb and Shrub/Trees based gardens, and Palm and Liana based gardens. Their prevalence was dependent upon bio-geographical zones and HG owner socio-economic characteristics, with herbs based HGs being mainly associated to women.

Conclusion: Results suggest effects of complex interactions between socio-economic factors on HG ownership, and influence of these effects combined with intrinsic characteristics of HGs on PD. The early involvement of women in home gardening and their particular interest in herbs and shrubs are important assets for future conservation strategies based on HG and food production. Interventions are required to interfere with declining PD in HG across generations to accommodate multiple ecosystem service benefits.

No MeSH data available.