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Non-suicidal self-injury maintenance and cessation among adolescents: a one-year longitudinal investigation of the role of objectified body consciousness, depression and emotion dysregulation.

Duggan J, Heath N, Hu T - Child Adolesc Psychiatry Ment Health (2015)

Bottom Line: Specifically, both NSSI groups reported significantly greater body shame and body surveillance over time than the non-NSSI group.Additionally, the NSSI Maintain group reported significantly greater body surveillance at T2 when compared to the NSSI Stop and non-NSSI group.The NSSI Maintain group also reported significantly more emotion dysregulation difficulties and depressive symptoms at T2 when compared to the NSSI Stop and non-NSSI group.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Educational & Counselling Psychology, McGill University, Montreal, QC Canada.

ABSTRACT
Using the objectification theory, scholars have theorized the sense of detachment and disregard for the body that results from continued body objectification are believed to put a person at greater risk for non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI), due to a lack of emotional investment in the body. The goal of the current study was to longitudinally investigate the association between body objectification and NSSI among an early adolescent sample. The overall sample consisted of 120 participants (56 % female) who ranged in age from 11 to 13 years of age (M = 12.34, SD = .48). Participants were followed over the course of a 12-month period, and classified into three groups of interest; adolescents who reported maintaining NSSI behaviour over the course of a year (NSSI Maintain group, n = 20), adolescents who reported stopping the behaviour over the course of a year (NSSI Stop group, n = 40), and a comparison group of adolescents who did not report engaging in NSSI (n = 60). Using a 3 (NSSI Maintain, NSSI Stop, and Comparison) X 2 (Gender) X 2 (Time 1 and Time 2) repeated measures multiple analysis of variance (MANOVA), results indicated a significant group by time interaction, showing group differences with respect to body shame and body surveillance over time. Specifically, both NSSI groups reported significantly greater body shame and body surveillance over time than the non-NSSI group. Additionally, the NSSI Maintain group reported significantly greater body surveillance at T2 when compared to the NSSI Stop and non-NSSI group. The NSSI Maintain group also reported significantly more emotion dysregulation difficulties and depressive symptoms at T2 when compared to the NSSI Stop and non-NSSI group. The influence of body objectification as a core intrapersonal risk factor related to the maintenance and cessation of NSSI behaviour is discussed, as are clinical implications considering body objectification as an important variable in prevention and treatment efforts.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Bar chart representing group differences in OBCS Body Surveillance subscale over time. * = significant differences. Error bars denote one standard deviation around the mean
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Fig2: Bar chart representing group differences in OBCS Body Surveillance subscale over time. * = significant differences. Error bars denote one standard deviation around the mean

Mentions: The interaction between time and gender was also significant, Wilks’ λ = .83, F(3, 112) = 7.58, p < .00, ηp2 = .17. Univariate effects indicated males and females scored differently with respect to appearance control beliefs and body shame over time, regardless of group status. Specifically, both males and females reported increased body shame over time, regardless of group status. Females indicated increased body surveillance over time while males indicated decreased body surveillance over time, regardless of group status. Further, males and females reported decreased appearance control beliefs over time, regardless of group status. The triple interaction between time, group, and gender was not significant, Wilks’ λ = .98, F(6, 224) = .48, p = n.s., ηp2 = .01, indicating that body objectification did not differ over time between groups as a function of gender. Descriptive statistics by gender across groups in T1 and T2 are listed in Table 1 and Table 2, respectively. Refer to Table 3 for a detailed presentation of the univariate effects of group and gender on OBCS subscales across time. See Figs. 1, 2, and 3 for group mean differences with respect to OBSC subscales across time.Table 3


Non-suicidal self-injury maintenance and cessation among adolescents: a one-year longitudinal investigation of the role of objectified body consciousness, depression and emotion dysregulation.

Duggan J, Heath N, Hu T - Child Adolesc Psychiatry Ment Health (2015)

Bar chart representing group differences in OBCS Body Surveillance subscale over time. * = significant differences. Error bars denote one standard deviation around the mean
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4495797&req=5

Fig2: Bar chart representing group differences in OBCS Body Surveillance subscale over time. * = significant differences. Error bars denote one standard deviation around the mean
Mentions: The interaction between time and gender was also significant, Wilks’ λ = .83, F(3, 112) = 7.58, p < .00, ηp2 = .17. Univariate effects indicated males and females scored differently with respect to appearance control beliefs and body shame over time, regardless of group status. Specifically, both males and females reported increased body shame over time, regardless of group status. Females indicated increased body surveillance over time while males indicated decreased body surveillance over time, regardless of group status. Further, males and females reported decreased appearance control beliefs over time, regardless of group status. The triple interaction between time, group, and gender was not significant, Wilks’ λ = .98, F(6, 224) = .48, p = n.s., ηp2 = .01, indicating that body objectification did not differ over time between groups as a function of gender. Descriptive statistics by gender across groups in T1 and T2 are listed in Table 1 and Table 2, respectively. Refer to Table 3 for a detailed presentation of the univariate effects of group and gender on OBCS subscales across time. See Figs. 1, 2, and 3 for group mean differences with respect to OBSC subscales across time.Table 3

Bottom Line: Specifically, both NSSI groups reported significantly greater body shame and body surveillance over time than the non-NSSI group.Additionally, the NSSI Maintain group reported significantly greater body surveillance at T2 when compared to the NSSI Stop and non-NSSI group.The NSSI Maintain group also reported significantly more emotion dysregulation difficulties and depressive symptoms at T2 when compared to the NSSI Stop and non-NSSI group.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Educational & Counselling Psychology, McGill University, Montreal, QC Canada.

ABSTRACT
Using the objectification theory, scholars have theorized the sense of detachment and disregard for the body that results from continued body objectification are believed to put a person at greater risk for non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI), due to a lack of emotional investment in the body. The goal of the current study was to longitudinally investigate the association between body objectification and NSSI among an early adolescent sample. The overall sample consisted of 120 participants (56 % female) who ranged in age from 11 to 13 years of age (M = 12.34, SD = .48). Participants were followed over the course of a 12-month period, and classified into three groups of interest; adolescents who reported maintaining NSSI behaviour over the course of a year (NSSI Maintain group, n = 20), adolescents who reported stopping the behaviour over the course of a year (NSSI Stop group, n = 40), and a comparison group of adolescents who did not report engaging in NSSI (n = 60). Using a 3 (NSSI Maintain, NSSI Stop, and Comparison) X 2 (Gender) X 2 (Time 1 and Time 2) repeated measures multiple analysis of variance (MANOVA), results indicated a significant group by time interaction, showing group differences with respect to body shame and body surveillance over time. Specifically, both NSSI groups reported significantly greater body shame and body surveillance over time than the non-NSSI group. Additionally, the NSSI Maintain group reported significantly greater body surveillance at T2 when compared to the NSSI Stop and non-NSSI group. The NSSI Maintain group also reported significantly more emotion dysregulation difficulties and depressive symptoms at T2 when compared to the NSSI Stop and non-NSSI group. The influence of body objectification as a core intrapersonal risk factor related to the maintenance and cessation of NSSI behaviour is discussed, as are clinical implications considering body objectification as an important variable in prevention and treatment efforts.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus