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Senior orienteering athletes as a model of healthy aging: a mixed-method approach.

Östlund-Lagerström L, Blomberg K, Algilani S, Schoultz M, Kihlgren A, Brummer RJ, Schoultz I - BMC Geriatr (2015)

Bottom Line: The orienteering athletes enrolled in the study reported a significantly better health compared to the free-living older adults (p <0.0015) on all questionnaires except HADS.In conclusion our results show that senior orienteering may represent an ideal model in studies of healthy aging.Furthermore, our results show that even though the senior orienteering athletes are well aware of the long-term benefits of physical activity and have practiced the sport from a young age, they particularly point out that their engagement in orienteering is driven by short-term values such as enjoyment and passion.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Nutrition and Physical Activity Research Centre, Faculty of Health and Medicine, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, S-701 82, Örebro, Sweden. lina.ostlund-lagerstrom@oru.se.

ABSTRACT

Background: The proportion of individuals reaching an old age is increasing and will, in the near future consume a majority of health care resources. It is therefore essential to facilitate the maintenance of optimal functionality among older adults. By characterizing older individuals experiencing wellbeing, factors important to promote and maintain health through life can be identified. Orienteering is an endurance-running sport involving cross-country navigation, demanding both cognitive and physical skills of its practitioners. In this study we aim to explore a Swedish population of senior orienteering athletes as a potential model of healthy aging.

Methods: We undertook a mixed-method approach using quantitative (i.e. questionnaires) and qualitative (i.e. focus group discussions) methodologies to explore a population of senior orienteering athletes (n = 136, median age = 69 (67-71) years). Quantitative data was collected to evaluate health status, assessing physical activity (Frändin-Grimby activity scale (FGAS)), functional wellbeing (EQ-5D-5 L), gut health (Gastrointestinal symptoms rating scale (GSRS)), anxiety and depression (Hospital Anxiety and Depression scale (HADS)) and overall health (Health index (HI)). The data was further compared to reference values obtained from a free-living Swedish population of older adults. Focus group discussions (FGD) were performed as a complement to the quantitative data to facilitate the individuals' own views on health and physical activity.

Results: The orienteering athletes enrolled in the study reported a significantly better health compared to the free-living older adults (p <0.0015) on all questionnaires except HADS. The high health status displayed in this population was further confirmed by the FGD findings, in which all participants declared their engagement in orienteering as a prerequisite for health.

Conclusions: In conclusion our results show that senior orienteering may represent an ideal model in studies of healthy aging. Furthermore, our results show that even though the senior orienteering athletes are well aware of the long-term benefits of physical activity and have practiced the sport from a young age, they particularly point out that their engagement in orienteering is driven by short-term values such as enjoyment and passion. This may be important to consider when introducing public health interventions among the general older population.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Hospital anxiety and depression scale (HADS). The Figure shows individually plotted scores in grey for the two populations together with bars in black indicating median and IQR, for HADS total scores. The crosshatched line shows a cut-off at eleven, the lowest total score among the OR population. A score ≥8 has been suggested to be indicative of mood disorder
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Fig5: Hospital anxiety and depression scale (HADS). The Figure shows individually plotted scores in grey for the two populations together with bars in black indicating median and IQR, for HADS total scores. The crosshatched line shows a cut-off at eleven, the lowest total score among the OR population. A score ≥8 has been suggested to be indicative of mood disorder

Mentions: The majority of the OR population displayed low levels of psychological distress, as the median score was 4 (2–7.3) on the physiological wellbeing scale HADS. No significant difference in HADS score was, however, observed between the OR and free-living older adults, indicating that the level of depression and anxiety were equal in the two populations. To further evaluate the distribution of the data, the scores were plotted (Fig. 5); as shown nine senior orienteering athletes reported elevated scores (≥8) on either of the HADS two subscales (7.4 %) compared to free-living older adults, in which 31 participants (13.0 %) reported a high score. A high HADS score was found in the majority of cases to correlate to low scores on the items measuring pain and psychological distress on the EQ-5D index, thus contributing to the low median value. On the HI measure, a high HADS score was found to correspond to a low score on items estimating the study participants’ sleep deprivation, tiredness and pain. Two (1.6 %) of the orienteering athletes identified as scoring high on HADS displayed scores indicative of a probable case of anxiety or depression, as judged by the cut-offs on the two subscales suggested by Snaith [25]. For one of these individuals the high HADS score corresponded to a low score of 50 % of the scale maximum, as previously mentioned.Fig. 5


Senior orienteering athletes as a model of healthy aging: a mixed-method approach.

Östlund-Lagerström L, Blomberg K, Algilani S, Schoultz M, Kihlgren A, Brummer RJ, Schoultz I - BMC Geriatr (2015)

Hospital anxiety and depression scale (HADS). The Figure shows individually plotted scores in grey for the two populations together with bars in black indicating median and IQR, for HADS total scores. The crosshatched line shows a cut-off at eleven, the lowest total score among the OR population. A score ≥8 has been suggested to be indicative of mood disorder
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4495641&req=5

Fig5: Hospital anxiety and depression scale (HADS). The Figure shows individually plotted scores in grey for the two populations together with bars in black indicating median and IQR, for HADS total scores. The crosshatched line shows a cut-off at eleven, the lowest total score among the OR population. A score ≥8 has been suggested to be indicative of mood disorder
Mentions: The majority of the OR population displayed low levels of psychological distress, as the median score was 4 (2–7.3) on the physiological wellbeing scale HADS. No significant difference in HADS score was, however, observed between the OR and free-living older adults, indicating that the level of depression and anxiety were equal in the two populations. To further evaluate the distribution of the data, the scores were plotted (Fig. 5); as shown nine senior orienteering athletes reported elevated scores (≥8) on either of the HADS two subscales (7.4 %) compared to free-living older adults, in which 31 participants (13.0 %) reported a high score. A high HADS score was found in the majority of cases to correlate to low scores on the items measuring pain and psychological distress on the EQ-5D index, thus contributing to the low median value. On the HI measure, a high HADS score was found to correspond to a low score on items estimating the study participants’ sleep deprivation, tiredness and pain. Two (1.6 %) of the orienteering athletes identified as scoring high on HADS displayed scores indicative of a probable case of anxiety or depression, as judged by the cut-offs on the two subscales suggested by Snaith [25]. For one of these individuals the high HADS score corresponded to a low score of 50 % of the scale maximum, as previously mentioned.Fig. 5

Bottom Line: The orienteering athletes enrolled in the study reported a significantly better health compared to the free-living older adults (p <0.0015) on all questionnaires except HADS.In conclusion our results show that senior orienteering may represent an ideal model in studies of healthy aging.Furthermore, our results show that even though the senior orienteering athletes are well aware of the long-term benefits of physical activity and have practiced the sport from a young age, they particularly point out that their engagement in orienteering is driven by short-term values such as enjoyment and passion.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Nutrition and Physical Activity Research Centre, Faculty of Health and Medicine, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, S-701 82, Örebro, Sweden. lina.ostlund-lagerstrom@oru.se.

ABSTRACT

Background: The proportion of individuals reaching an old age is increasing and will, in the near future consume a majority of health care resources. It is therefore essential to facilitate the maintenance of optimal functionality among older adults. By characterizing older individuals experiencing wellbeing, factors important to promote and maintain health through life can be identified. Orienteering is an endurance-running sport involving cross-country navigation, demanding both cognitive and physical skills of its practitioners. In this study we aim to explore a Swedish population of senior orienteering athletes as a potential model of healthy aging.

Methods: We undertook a mixed-method approach using quantitative (i.e. questionnaires) and qualitative (i.e. focus group discussions) methodologies to explore a population of senior orienteering athletes (n = 136, median age = 69 (67-71) years). Quantitative data was collected to evaluate health status, assessing physical activity (Frändin-Grimby activity scale (FGAS)), functional wellbeing (EQ-5D-5 L), gut health (Gastrointestinal symptoms rating scale (GSRS)), anxiety and depression (Hospital Anxiety and Depression scale (HADS)) and overall health (Health index (HI)). The data was further compared to reference values obtained from a free-living Swedish population of older adults. Focus group discussions (FGD) were performed as a complement to the quantitative data to facilitate the individuals' own views on health and physical activity.

Results: The orienteering athletes enrolled in the study reported a significantly better health compared to the free-living older adults (p <0.0015) on all questionnaires except HADS. The high health status displayed in this population was further confirmed by the FGD findings, in which all participants declared their engagement in orienteering as a prerequisite for health.

Conclusions: In conclusion our results show that senior orienteering may represent an ideal model in studies of healthy aging. Furthermore, our results show that even though the senior orienteering athletes are well aware of the long-term benefits of physical activity and have practiced the sport from a young age, they particularly point out that their engagement in orienteering is driven by short-term values such as enjoyment and passion. This may be important to consider when introducing public health interventions among the general older population.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus