Limits...
Brief Eclectic Psychotherapy for Traumatic Grief (BEP-TG): toward integrated treatment of symptoms related to traumatic loss.

Smid GE, Kleber RJ, de la Rie SM, Bos JB, Gersons BP, Boelen PA - Eur J Psychotraumatol (2015)

Bottom Line: BEP-TG targets these processes.The BEP-TG protocol consists of five parts with proven effectiveness in the treatment of PCBD, PTSD, and MDD: information and motivation, grief-focused exposure, memorabilia and writing assignments, finding meaning and activation, and a farewell ritual.Tailored to fit the needs of trauma survivors, BEP-TG can be used to address traumatic grief symptoms related to multiple losses and ambiguous loss, as well as cultural aspects of bereavement through its different components.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Foundation Centrum '45/Arq Psychotrauma Expert Group, Diemen, The Netherlands; g.smid@centrum45.nl.

ABSTRACT

Background: Traumatic events such as disasters, accidents, war, or criminal violence are often accompanied by the loss of loved ones, and may then give rise to traumatic grief. Traumatic grief refers to a clinical diagnosis of persistent complex bereavement disorder (PCBD) with comorbid (symptoms of) posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and/or major depressive disorder (MDD) following confrontation with a traumatic loss. Trauma survivors, who are frequently from different cultural backgrounds, have often experienced multiple losses and ambiguous loss (missing family members or friends). Current evidence-based treatments for PTSD do not focus on traumatic grief.

Objective: To develop a treatment for traumatic grief combining treatment interventions for PTSD and PCBD that may accommodate cultural aspects of grief.

Method: To provide a rationale for treatment, we propose a cognitive stress model of traumatic grief. Based on this model and on existing evidence-based treatments for PTSD and complicated grief, we developed Brief Eclectic Psychotherapy for Traumatic Grief (BEP-TG) for the treatment of patients with traumatic grief. The treatment is presented along with a case vignette.

Results: Processes contributing to traumatic grief include inadequately integrating the memory of the traumatic loss, negative appraisal of the traumatic loss, sensitivity to matching triggers and new stressors, and attempting to avoid distress. BEP-TG targets these processes. The BEP-TG protocol consists of five parts with proven effectiveness in the treatment of PCBD, PTSD, and MDD: information and motivation, grief-focused exposure, memorabilia and writing assignments, finding meaning and activation, and a farewell ritual.

Conclusion: Tailored to fit the needs of trauma survivors, BEP-TG can be used to address traumatic grief symptoms related to multiple losses and ambiguous loss, as well as cultural aspects of bereavement through its different components.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

BEP-TG overview. Numbers indicate session numbers.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4495623&req=5

Figure 0002: BEP-TG overview. Numbers indicate session numbers.

Mentions: Across the three stages, the BEP-TG protocol consists of five components. Figure 2 shows an overview of the BEP-TG components, also indicating the planning of the BEP-TG components across the 16 sessions. Due to its emphasis on cognitive aspects (e.g., forms of finding meaning and assignments to create a narrative of the traumatic experience) and due to its concrete elements (e.g., mementos and rituals) BEP-TG can accommodate cultural aspects of grief. The characteristics of grief have been studied in various cultures (Rosenblatt, 2008). Meaning making occurs in the interchange between the individual and the culture. Indeed, an individual seeks to make sense of his or her experience using cognitive or mental models that are supplied by that individual's culture.


Brief Eclectic Psychotherapy for Traumatic Grief (BEP-TG): toward integrated treatment of symptoms related to traumatic loss.

Smid GE, Kleber RJ, de la Rie SM, Bos JB, Gersons BP, Boelen PA - Eur J Psychotraumatol (2015)

BEP-TG overview. Numbers indicate session numbers.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4495623&req=5

Figure 0002: BEP-TG overview. Numbers indicate session numbers.
Mentions: Across the three stages, the BEP-TG protocol consists of five components. Figure 2 shows an overview of the BEP-TG components, also indicating the planning of the BEP-TG components across the 16 sessions. Due to its emphasis on cognitive aspects (e.g., forms of finding meaning and assignments to create a narrative of the traumatic experience) and due to its concrete elements (e.g., mementos and rituals) BEP-TG can accommodate cultural aspects of grief. The characteristics of grief have been studied in various cultures (Rosenblatt, 2008). Meaning making occurs in the interchange between the individual and the culture. Indeed, an individual seeks to make sense of his or her experience using cognitive or mental models that are supplied by that individual's culture.

Bottom Line: BEP-TG targets these processes.The BEP-TG protocol consists of five parts with proven effectiveness in the treatment of PCBD, PTSD, and MDD: information and motivation, grief-focused exposure, memorabilia and writing assignments, finding meaning and activation, and a farewell ritual.Tailored to fit the needs of trauma survivors, BEP-TG can be used to address traumatic grief symptoms related to multiple losses and ambiguous loss, as well as cultural aspects of bereavement through its different components.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Foundation Centrum '45/Arq Psychotrauma Expert Group, Diemen, The Netherlands; g.smid@centrum45.nl.

ABSTRACT

Background: Traumatic events such as disasters, accidents, war, or criminal violence are often accompanied by the loss of loved ones, and may then give rise to traumatic grief. Traumatic grief refers to a clinical diagnosis of persistent complex bereavement disorder (PCBD) with comorbid (symptoms of) posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and/or major depressive disorder (MDD) following confrontation with a traumatic loss. Trauma survivors, who are frequently from different cultural backgrounds, have often experienced multiple losses and ambiguous loss (missing family members or friends). Current evidence-based treatments for PTSD do not focus on traumatic grief.

Objective: To develop a treatment for traumatic grief combining treatment interventions for PTSD and PCBD that may accommodate cultural aspects of grief.

Method: To provide a rationale for treatment, we propose a cognitive stress model of traumatic grief. Based on this model and on existing evidence-based treatments for PTSD and complicated grief, we developed Brief Eclectic Psychotherapy for Traumatic Grief (BEP-TG) for the treatment of patients with traumatic grief. The treatment is presented along with a case vignette.

Results: Processes contributing to traumatic grief include inadequately integrating the memory of the traumatic loss, negative appraisal of the traumatic loss, sensitivity to matching triggers and new stressors, and attempting to avoid distress. BEP-TG targets these processes. The BEP-TG protocol consists of five parts with proven effectiveness in the treatment of PCBD, PTSD, and MDD: information and motivation, grief-focused exposure, memorabilia and writing assignments, finding meaning and activation, and a farewell ritual.

Conclusion: Tailored to fit the needs of trauma survivors, BEP-TG can be used to address traumatic grief symptoms related to multiple losses and ambiguous loss, as well as cultural aspects of bereavement through its different components.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus