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An Investigation of a Cluster of Parapoxvirus Cases in Missouri, Feb-May 2006: Epidemiologic, Clinical and Molecular Aspects.

Lederman ER, Tao M, Reynolds MG, Li Y, Zhao H, Smith SK, Sitler L, Haberling DL, Davidson W, Hutson C, Emerson G, Schnurr D, Regnery R, Zhu BP, Pue H, Damon IK - Animals (Basel) (2013)

Bottom Line: Three case patients were found to have fed ill juvenile animals without using gloves.Infected persons often do not seek medical care; some may seek advice from veterinarians rather than physicians.Asymptomatic parapoxvirus infections in livestock may be common and further investigation warranted.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Poxvirus and Rabies Branch, Division of Viral and Rickettsial Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA. erlederman@yahoo.com.

ABSTRACT
In the spring of 2006, four human cases of parapoxvirus infections in Missouri residents were reported to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), two of which were initially diagnosed as cutaneous anthrax. This investigation was conducted to determine the level of recognition of zoonotic parapoxvirus infections and prevention measures, the degree to which veterinarians may be consulted on human infections and what forces were behind this perceived increase in reported infections. Interviews were conducted and clinical and environmental sampling was performed. Swab and scab specimens were analyzed by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR), whereas serum specimens were evaluated for parapoxvirus antibodies. Three case patients were found to have fed ill juvenile animals without using gloves. Forty-six percent of veterinarians reported having been consulted regarding suspected human orf infections. Orf virus DNA was detected from five of 25 asymptomatic sheep. Analysis of extracellular envelope gene sequences indicated that sheep and goat isolates clustered in a species-preferential fashion. Parapoxvirus infections are common in Missouri ruminants and their handlers. Infected persons often do not seek medical care; some may seek advice from veterinarians rather than physicians. The initial perception of increased incidence in Missouri may have arisen from a reporting artifact stemming from heightened concern about anthrax. Asymptomatic parapoxvirus infections in livestock may be common and further investigation warranted.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Orf clinical manifestations in a typical kid (a) vs. a lamb (b), Missouri, 2006.
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animals-03-00142-f001: Orf clinical manifestations in a typical kid (a) vs. a lamb (b), Missouri, 2006.

Mentions: Five additional farms in proximity to three of the four cases were evaluated with employee questionnaires and animal assessment/sampling; the fourth case (orf virus) was excluded because of lack of proximal farms and limitations in time for the investigation. Three of these five farms had overtly infected animals (sheep and goats). The kids examined were younger than the infected lambs (3–5 weeks old vs. 12–16 weeks old) and had more exuberant lesions, especially on their gingiva (Figure 1). Two additional cases of employees with orf lesions were identified during the evaluation of one neighboring dairy farm. As the lesions were healing and not amenable to confirmatory diagnosis using PCR, serology was performed to assess infection etiology as described above. Both employees had IgM and IgG titers to parapoxvirus ≥1:128. Both employees were young men from an urban area who had arrived several months before as part of a youth rehabilitation program; neither had prior farm animal exposure before being employed on this dairy. They both cared for kids (including bottle feeding) on a daily basis, several of which were actively infected at the time of our visit (infection status was confirmed by real-time PCR).


An Investigation of a Cluster of Parapoxvirus Cases in Missouri, Feb-May 2006: Epidemiologic, Clinical and Molecular Aspects.

Lederman ER, Tao M, Reynolds MG, Li Y, Zhao H, Smith SK, Sitler L, Haberling DL, Davidson W, Hutson C, Emerson G, Schnurr D, Regnery R, Zhu BP, Pue H, Damon IK - Animals (Basel) (2013)

Orf clinical manifestations in a typical kid (a) vs. a lamb (b), Missouri, 2006.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4495517&req=5

animals-03-00142-f001: Orf clinical manifestations in a typical kid (a) vs. a lamb (b), Missouri, 2006.
Mentions: Five additional farms in proximity to three of the four cases were evaluated with employee questionnaires and animal assessment/sampling; the fourth case (orf virus) was excluded because of lack of proximal farms and limitations in time for the investigation. Three of these five farms had overtly infected animals (sheep and goats). The kids examined were younger than the infected lambs (3–5 weeks old vs. 12–16 weeks old) and had more exuberant lesions, especially on their gingiva (Figure 1). Two additional cases of employees with orf lesions were identified during the evaluation of one neighboring dairy farm. As the lesions were healing and not amenable to confirmatory diagnosis using PCR, serology was performed to assess infection etiology as described above. Both employees had IgM and IgG titers to parapoxvirus ≥1:128. Both employees were young men from an urban area who had arrived several months before as part of a youth rehabilitation program; neither had prior farm animal exposure before being employed on this dairy. They both cared for kids (including bottle feeding) on a daily basis, several of which were actively infected at the time of our visit (infection status was confirmed by real-time PCR).

Bottom Line: Three case patients were found to have fed ill juvenile animals without using gloves.Infected persons often do not seek medical care; some may seek advice from veterinarians rather than physicians.Asymptomatic parapoxvirus infections in livestock may be common and further investigation warranted.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Poxvirus and Rabies Branch, Division of Viral and Rickettsial Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA. erlederman@yahoo.com.

ABSTRACT
In the spring of 2006, four human cases of parapoxvirus infections in Missouri residents were reported to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), two of which were initially diagnosed as cutaneous anthrax. This investigation was conducted to determine the level of recognition of zoonotic parapoxvirus infections and prevention measures, the degree to which veterinarians may be consulted on human infections and what forces were behind this perceived increase in reported infections. Interviews were conducted and clinical and environmental sampling was performed. Swab and scab specimens were analyzed by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR), whereas serum specimens were evaluated for parapoxvirus antibodies. Three case patients were found to have fed ill juvenile animals without using gloves. Forty-six percent of veterinarians reported having been consulted regarding suspected human orf infections. Orf virus DNA was detected from five of 25 asymptomatic sheep. Analysis of extracellular envelope gene sequences indicated that sheep and goat isolates clustered in a species-preferential fashion. Parapoxvirus infections are common in Missouri ruminants and their handlers. Infected persons often do not seek medical care; some may seek advice from veterinarians rather than physicians. The initial perception of increased incidence in Missouri may have arisen from a reporting artifact stemming from heightened concern about anthrax. Asymptomatic parapoxvirus infections in livestock may be common and further investigation warranted.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus