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Bio-Mimetics of Disaster Anticipation-Learning Experience and Key-Challenges.

Tributsch H - Animals (Basel) (2013)

Bottom Line: It is suggested that the time window is identical and that both phenomena have the same geophysical origin.It is shown that by considering appropriate geophysical feedback processes, this is possible for large scale energy conversion phenomena within highly non-linear geophysical mechanisms.With satellite monitored infrared anomalies indicating possible epicenters and local animal and environmental observations immediately initiated, the learning experience towards an understanding of the phenomena involved could be accelerated.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Bio-Mimetics Program, Carinthian University of Applied Sciences, Europastrasse 4, 9524 Villach, Austria. helmut.tributsch@alice.it.

ABSTRACT
Anomalies in animal behavior and meteorological phenomena before major earthquakes have been reported throughout history. Bio-mimetics or bionics aims at learning disaster anticipation from animals. Since modern science is reluctant to address this problem an effort has been made to track down the knowledge available to ancient natural philosophers. Starting with an archaeologically documented human sacrifice around 1700 B.C. during the Minoan civilization immediately before a large earthquake, which killed the participants, earthquake prediction knowledge throughout antiquity is evaluated. Major practical experience with this phenomenon has been gained from a Chinese earthquake prediction initiative nearly half a century ago. Some quakes, like that of Haicheng, were recognized in advance. However, the destructive Tangshan earthquake was not predicted, which was interpreted as an inherent failure of prediction based on animal phenomena. This is contradicted on the basis of reliable Chinese documentation provided by the responsible earthquake study commission. The Tangshan earthquake was preceded by more than 2,000 reported animal anomalies, some of which were of very dramatic nature. They are discussed here. Any physical phenomenon, which may cause animal unrest, must involve energy turnover before the main earthquake event. The final product, however, of any energy turnover is heat. Satellite based infrared measurements have indeed identified significant thermal anomalies before major earthquakes. One of these cases, occurring during the 2001 Bhuj earthquake in Gujarat, India, is analyzed together with parallel animal anomalies observed in the Gir national park. It is suggested that the time window is identical and that both phenomena have the same geophysical origin. It therefore remains to be demonstrated that energy can be released locally before major earthquake events. It is shown that by considering appropriate geophysical feedback processes, this is possible for large scale energy conversion phenomena within highly non-linear geophysical mechanisms. With satellite monitored infrared anomalies indicating possible epicenters and local animal and environmental observations immediately initiated, the learning experience towards an understanding of the phenomena involved could be accelerated.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Infrared anomaly seen from a satellite (infrared anomaly distribution adapted from [48]) over central Italy before the Abruzzo earthquake. The left image was taken on 30 March, the right one on 31 March (the quake happened on 6 April, 3.32 A.M.). The arrows in the figures indicate the site of animal (toad) observation and the epicentre respectively (the infrared absorbing clouds are also indicated).
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animals-03-00274-f006: Infrared anomaly seen from a satellite (infrared anomaly distribution adapted from [48]) over central Italy before the Abruzzo earthquake. The left image was taken on 30 March, the right one on 31 March (the quake happened on 6 April, 3.32 A.M.). The arrows in the figures indicate the site of animal (toad) observation and the epicentre respectively (the infrared absorbing clouds are also indicated).

Mentions: Past earthquakes can be analysed for pre-earthquake thermal anomalies using recorded satellite data (e.g., NOAA-AVHRR thermal infrared time series datasets, passive microwave SSM/I sensor datasets from DMPS satellites). This has been done for a series of more recent earthquakes, such as Bhuj (Gujarat, India, M = 7.7, 26 January 2001), Boumerdes (Algeria, M = 6.8, 21 May 2003), and Bam (Iran, M = 6.6, 26 December 2003) but also for several additional earthquakes, larger than magnitude six on the Richter scale, in China (Xinjang, M = 6.4; 24 February 2003), Afghanistan (Hindukush, M = 6.2, 7.2; 3 March 2002) and Pakistan (Kalat, M = 6.1, 4 March 1990) [34,35,36,37,38,39,40,41,42,43,44,45,46,47]. The astonishing result is that such thermal anomalies actually appear to exist. They show up one week, several days or hours before the earthquakes. The recent Abruzzo earthquake of 6 April 2009, was preceded by infrared anomalies starting 13 hours before the strongest foreshock (30 March) and showing a maximum extension on 31 March, five days before the main earthquake event (it occurred on 6 April at 3.32 A.M.) [48,49,50]. These latter studies are especially relevant, because for the same earthquake reliable animal precursors were observed by Rachel Grant [51]. She was investigating colonies of common toads at San Ruffino lake 74 km north of the epicentre near L’Aquila. Five days before the earthquake the number of toads fell by 96%. While spawn was found at the site up to six days before the quake, no spawn was laid afterwards, until after the quake period. An interruption of the mating activity is an entirely unusual phenomenon. What happened five to six days before the Abruzzo earthquake in terms of the infrared anomaly seen from a satellite? On these days the infrared anomaly actually appeared for the first time in the earthquake region, as seen from Figure 6 (distribution of infrared anomaly adapted from [48]), and spread across central Italy (dark (red) areas in Figure 6 left: 30 March, right: 31 March). The site of the toad studies and the epicentre are indicated. Since clouds (indicated grey areas) obscure the infrared anomaly, the phenomenon is only partially seen. Nevertheless, it appears that the infrared anomaly passed over the site of the toad observation on the critical days of abnormal animal behaviour. There is apparently a correlation.


Bio-Mimetics of Disaster Anticipation-Learning Experience and Key-Challenges.

Tributsch H - Animals (Basel) (2013)

Infrared anomaly seen from a satellite (infrared anomaly distribution adapted from [48]) over central Italy before the Abruzzo earthquake. The left image was taken on 30 March, the right one on 31 March (the quake happened on 6 April, 3.32 A.M.). The arrows in the figures indicate the site of animal (toad) observation and the epicentre respectively (the infrared absorbing clouds are also indicated).
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4495514&req=5

animals-03-00274-f006: Infrared anomaly seen from a satellite (infrared anomaly distribution adapted from [48]) over central Italy before the Abruzzo earthquake. The left image was taken on 30 March, the right one on 31 March (the quake happened on 6 April, 3.32 A.M.). The arrows in the figures indicate the site of animal (toad) observation and the epicentre respectively (the infrared absorbing clouds are also indicated).
Mentions: Past earthquakes can be analysed for pre-earthquake thermal anomalies using recorded satellite data (e.g., NOAA-AVHRR thermal infrared time series datasets, passive microwave SSM/I sensor datasets from DMPS satellites). This has been done for a series of more recent earthquakes, such as Bhuj (Gujarat, India, M = 7.7, 26 January 2001), Boumerdes (Algeria, M = 6.8, 21 May 2003), and Bam (Iran, M = 6.6, 26 December 2003) but also for several additional earthquakes, larger than magnitude six on the Richter scale, in China (Xinjang, M = 6.4; 24 February 2003), Afghanistan (Hindukush, M = 6.2, 7.2; 3 March 2002) and Pakistan (Kalat, M = 6.1, 4 March 1990) [34,35,36,37,38,39,40,41,42,43,44,45,46,47]. The astonishing result is that such thermal anomalies actually appear to exist. They show up one week, several days or hours before the earthquakes. The recent Abruzzo earthquake of 6 April 2009, was preceded by infrared anomalies starting 13 hours before the strongest foreshock (30 March) and showing a maximum extension on 31 March, five days before the main earthquake event (it occurred on 6 April at 3.32 A.M.) [48,49,50]. These latter studies are especially relevant, because for the same earthquake reliable animal precursors were observed by Rachel Grant [51]. She was investigating colonies of common toads at San Ruffino lake 74 km north of the epicentre near L’Aquila. Five days before the earthquake the number of toads fell by 96%. While spawn was found at the site up to six days before the quake, no spawn was laid afterwards, until after the quake period. An interruption of the mating activity is an entirely unusual phenomenon. What happened five to six days before the Abruzzo earthquake in terms of the infrared anomaly seen from a satellite? On these days the infrared anomaly actually appeared for the first time in the earthquake region, as seen from Figure 6 (distribution of infrared anomaly adapted from [48]), and spread across central Italy (dark (red) areas in Figure 6 left: 30 March, right: 31 March). The site of the toad studies and the epicentre are indicated. Since clouds (indicated grey areas) obscure the infrared anomaly, the phenomenon is only partially seen. Nevertheless, it appears that the infrared anomaly passed over the site of the toad observation on the critical days of abnormal animal behaviour. There is apparently a correlation.

Bottom Line: It is suggested that the time window is identical and that both phenomena have the same geophysical origin.It is shown that by considering appropriate geophysical feedback processes, this is possible for large scale energy conversion phenomena within highly non-linear geophysical mechanisms.With satellite monitored infrared anomalies indicating possible epicenters and local animal and environmental observations immediately initiated, the learning experience towards an understanding of the phenomena involved could be accelerated.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Bio-Mimetics Program, Carinthian University of Applied Sciences, Europastrasse 4, 9524 Villach, Austria. helmut.tributsch@alice.it.

ABSTRACT
Anomalies in animal behavior and meteorological phenomena before major earthquakes have been reported throughout history. Bio-mimetics or bionics aims at learning disaster anticipation from animals. Since modern science is reluctant to address this problem an effort has been made to track down the knowledge available to ancient natural philosophers. Starting with an archaeologically documented human sacrifice around 1700 B.C. during the Minoan civilization immediately before a large earthquake, which killed the participants, earthquake prediction knowledge throughout antiquity is evaluated. Major practical experience with this phenomenon has been gained from a Chinese earthquake prediction initiative nearly half a century ago. Some quakes, like that of Haicheng, were recognized in advance. However, the destructive Tangshan earthquake was not predicted, which was interpreted as an inherent failure of prediction based on animal phenomena. This is contradicted on the basis of reliable Chinese documentation provided by the responsible earthquake study commission. The Tangshan earthquake was preceded by more than 2,000 reported animal anomalies, some of which were of very dramatic nature. They are discussed here. Any physical phenomenon, which may cause animal unrest, must involve energy turnover before the main earthquake event. The final product, however, of any energy turnover is heat. Satellite based infrared measurements have indeed identified significant thermal anomalies before major earthquakes. One of these cases, occurring during the 2001 Bhuj earthquake in Gujarat, India, is analyzed together with parallel animal anomalies observed in the Gir national park. It is suggested that the time window is identical and that both phenomena have the same geophysical origin. It therefore remains to be demonstrated that energy can be released locally before major earthquake events. It is shown that by considering appropriate geophysical feedback processes, this is possible for large scale energy conversion phenomena within highly non-linear geophysical mechanisms. With satellite monitored infrared anomalies indicating possible epicenters and local animal and environmental observations immediately initiated, the learning experience towards an understanding of the phenomena involved could be accelerated.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus