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Significance of antioxidant potential of plants and its relevance to therapeutic applications.

Kasote DM, Katyare SS, Hegde MV, Bae H - Int. J. Biol. Sci. (2015)

Bottom Line: However, prior to confirming their in vivo therapeutic efficacy, plant antioxidants have to pass through several physiopharmacological processes.Consequently, the findings of in vitro and in vivo antioxidant potential assessment studies are not always the same.Therefore, we have briefly reviewed the physiology and redox biology of both plants and humans to improve our understanding of plant antioxidants as therapeutic entities.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: 1. School of Biotechnology, Yeungnam University, Gyeongsan, Gyeongbuk 712-749, Republic of Korea.

ABSTRACT
Oxidative stress has been identified as the root cause of the development and progression of several diseases. Supplementation of exogenous antioxidants or boosting endogenous antioxidant defenses of the body is a promising way of combating the undesirable effects of reactive oxygen species (ROS) induced oxidative damage. Plants have an innate ability to biosynthesize a wide range of non-enzymatic antioxidants capable of attenuating ROS- induced oxidative damage. Several in vitro methods have been used to screen plants for their antioxidant potential, and in most of these assays they revealed potent antioxidant activity. However, prior to confirming their in vivo therapeutic efficacy, plant antioxidants have to pass through several physiopharmacological processes. Consequently, the findings of in vitro and in vivo antioxidant potential assessment studies are not always the same. Nevertheless, the results of in vitro assays have been irrelevantly extrapolated to the therapeutic application of plant antioxidants without undertaking sufficient in vivo studies. Therefore, we have briefly reviewed the physiology and redox biology of both plants and humans to improve our understanding of plant antioxidants as therapeutic entities. The applications and limitations of antioxidant activity measurement assays were also highlighted to identify the precise path to be followed for future research in the area of plant antioxidants.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Why do all plants have antioxidant activity? Plants have an innate ability to synthesize non-enzymatic antioxidants. However, under biotic and abiotic stress conditions, the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) increases in the plants, resulting in induction of oxidative stress. In response to increased oxidative stress, plants augment the production and accumulation of several low molecular weight antioxidants (e.g., vitamin C, vitamin E, phenolic acids, etc.) and high molecular antioxidant secondary metabolites such as tannins, which confer antioxidants to most plants under in vitro studies by functioning as free radical scavengers, reducing agents, and metal chelators.
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Figure 2: Why do all plants have antioxidant activity? Plants have an innate ability to synthesize non-enzymatic antioxidants. However, under biotic and abiotic stress conditions, the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) increases in the plants, resulting in induction of oxidative stress. In response to increased oxidative stress, plants augment the production and accumulation of several low molecular weight antioxidants (e.g., vitamin C, vitamin E, phenolic acids, etc.) and high molecular antioxidant secondary metabolites such as tannins, which confer antioxidants to most plants under in vitro studies by functioning as free radical scavengers, reducing agents, and metal chelators.

Mentions: Plants have efficient complex enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant defense systems to avoid the toxic effects of free radicals. Enzymatic systems include SOD, catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and glutathione reductase (GR) 7, while non-enzymatic systems consist of low molecular weight antioxidants (ascorbic acid, glutathione, proline, carotenoids, phenolic acids, flavonoids, etc.) and high molecular weight secondary metabolites such as tannins (Fig. 2).


Significance of antioxidant potential of plants and its relevance to therapeutic applications.

Kasote DM, Katyare SS, Hegde MV, Bae H - Int. J. Biol. Sci. (2015)

Why do all plants have antioxidant activity? Plants have an innate ability to synthesize non-enzymatic antioxidants. However, under biotic and abiotic stress conditions, the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) increases in the plants, resulting in induction of oxidative stress. In response to increased oxidative stress, plants augment the production and accumulation of several low molecular weight antioxidants (e.g., vitamin C, vitamin E, phenolic acids, etc.) and high molecular antioxidant secondary metabolites such as tannins, which confer antioxidants to most plants under in vitro studies by functioning as free radical scavengers, reducing agents, and metal chelators.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4495415&req=5

Figure 2: Why do all plants have antioxidant activity? Plants have an innate ability to synthesize non-enzymatic antioxidants. However, under biotic and abiotic stress conditions, the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) increases in the plants, resulting in induction of oxidative stress. In response to increased oxidative stress, plants augment the production and accumulation of several low molecular weight antioxidants (e.g., vitamin C, vitamin E, phenolic acids, etc.) and high molecular antioxidant secondary metabolites such as tannins, which confer antioxidants to most plants under in vitro studies by functioning as free radical scavengers, reducing agents, and metal chelators.
Mentions: Plants have efficient complex enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant defense systems to avoid the toxic effects of free radicals. Enzymatic systems include SOD, catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and glutathione reductase (GR) 7, while non-enzymatic systems consist of low molecular weight antioxidants (ascorbic acid, glutathione, proline, carotenoids, phenolic acids, flavonoids, etc.) and high molecular weight secondary metabolites such as tannins (Fig. 2).

Bottom Line: However, prior to confirming their in vivo therapeutic efficacy, plant antioxidants have to pass through several physiopharmacological processes.Consequently, the findings of in vitro and in vivo antioxidant potential assessment studies are not always the same.Therefore, we have briefly reviewed the physiology and redox biology of both plants and humans to improve our understanding of plant antioxidants as therapeutic entities.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: 1. School of Biotechnology, Yeungnam University, Gyeongsan, Gyeongbuk 712-749, Republic of Korea.

ABSTRACT
Oxidative stress has been identified as the root cause of the development and progression of several diseases. Supplementation of exogenous antioxidants or boosting endogenous antioxidant defenses of the body is a promising way of combating the undesirable effects of reactive oxygen species (ROS) induced oxidative damage. Plants have an innate ability to biosynthesize a wide range of non-enzymatic antioxidants capable of attenuating ROS- induced oxidative damage. Several in vitro methods have been used to screen plants for their antioxidant potential, and in most of these assays they revealed potent antioxidant activity. However, prior to confirming their in vivo therapeutic efficacy, plant antioxidants have to pass through several physiopharmacological processes. Consequently, the findings of in vitro and in vivo antioxidant potential assessment studies are not always the same. Nevertheless, the results of in vitro assays have been irrelevantly extrapolated to the therapeutic application of plant antioxidants without undertaking sufficient in vivo studies. Therefore, we have briefly reviewed the physiology and redox biology of both plants and humans to improve our understanding of plant antioxidants as therapeutic entities. The applications and limitations of antioxidant activity measurement assays were also highlighted to identify the precise path to be followed for future research in the area of plant antioxidants.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus