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Silver nanoparticle exposure induced mitochondrial stress, caspase-3 activation and cell death: amelioration by sodium selenite.

Ma W, Jing L, Valladares A, Mehta SL, Wang Z, Li PA, Bang JJ - Int. J. Biol. Sci. (2015)

Bottom Line: Selenium, an essential trace element that has been known to carry protecting property from heavy metals, was tested for its ameliorating potential in the cells exposed to AgNP.Results showed that AgNP reduced cell viability.It is concluded that AgNP induces mitochondrial stress and treatment with selenite is capable of preventing the adverse effects of AgNP on the mitochondria.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: 1. Department of Comprehensive Medicine, General Hospital of Ningxia Medical University, Yinchuan, Ningxia, P.R. China ; 4. Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Biomanufacturing Research Institute and Technological Enterprise (BRITE), North Carolina Central University, Durham, North Carolina, USA.

ABSTRACT
Silver nanoparticles (AgNP), one of the most commonly used engineered nanomaterial for biomedical and industrial applications, has shown a toxic potential to our ecosystems and humans. In this study, murine hippocampal neuronal HT22 cells were used to delineate subcellular responses and mechanisms to AgNP by assessing the response levels of caspase-3, mitochondrial oxygen consumption, reactive oxygen species (ROS), and mitochondrial membrane potential in addition to cell viability testing. Selenium, an essential trace element that has been known to carry protecting property from heavy metals, was tested for its ameliorating potential in the cells exposed to AgNP. Results showed that AgNP reduced cell viability. The toxicity was associated with mitochondrial membrane depolarization, increased accumulation of ROS, elevated mitochondrial oxygen consumption, and caspase-3 activation. Treatment with sodium selenite reduced cell death, stabilized mitochondrial membrane potential and oxygen consumption rate, and prevented accumulation of ROS and activation of caspase-3. It is concluded that AgNP induces mitochondrial stress and treatment with selenite is capable of preventing the adverse effects of AgNP on the mitochondria.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

TEM and EDS of AgNP. (A) Stock suspension was diluted for TEM image and the sizes of the AgNP were measured between 25 and 35nm. The insert bar is 20nm long. (B) EDS indicates the presence of silver on a copper grid with formvar. Arrows from left to right indicates carbon (formvar grid support), silver (Ag NP), and copper (grid).
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Figure 1: TEM and EDS of AgNP. (A) Stock suspension was diluted for TEM image and the sizes of the AgNP were measured between 25 and 35nm. The insert bar is 20nm long. (B) EDS indicates the presence of silver on a copper grid with formvar. Arrows from left to right indicates carbon (formvar grid support), silver (Ag NP), and copper (grid).

Mentions: Silver nanoparticles of various sizes ranging between 15nm and 100nm were purchased (Sun Nano, California). Transmission electron microscopic examination (TEM) was performed for physical characterization followed by dynamic light scattering (DLS) assessment. The size of majority of AgNP under TEM was around 30nm that was consistent with the values estimated by DLS on stock solutions prepared (Figure 1). Before TEM analysis, AgNP sample from stock suspension was sonicated for at least 30 minutes in nanopure water. The same samples were used for DLS analysis which showed 20-30 nm range at 5 ppm concentration. For DLS hydrodynamic diameter measurement, ALV-CGS3 (ALVgmbh, Langen, Germany) was used.


Silver nanoparticle exposure induced mitochondrial stress, caspase-3 activation and cell death: amelioration by sodium selenite.

Ma W, Jing L, Valladares A, Mehta SL, Wang Z, Li PA, Bang JJ - Int. J. Biol. Sci. (2015)

TEM and EDS of AgNP. (A) Stock suspension was diluted for TEM image and the sizes of the AgNP were measured between 25 and 35nm. The insert bar is 20nm long. (B) EDS indicates the presence of silver on a copper grid with formvar. Arrows from left to right indicates carbon (formvar grid support), silver (Ag NP), and copper (grid).
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4495404&req=5

Figure 1: TEM and EDS of AgNP. (A) Stock suspension was diluted for TEM image and the sizes of the AgNP were measured between 25 and 35nm. The insert bar is 20nm long. (B) EDS indicates the presence of silver on a copper grid with formvar. Arrows from left to right indicates carbon (formvar grid support), silver (Ag NP), and copper (grid).
Mentions: Silver nanoparticles of various sizes ranging between 15nm and 100nm were purchased (Sun Nano, California). Transmission electron microscopic examination (TEM) was performed for physical characterization followed by dynamic light scattering (DLS) assessment. The size of majority of AgNP under TEM was around 30nm that was consistent with the values estimated by DLS on stock solutions prepared (Figure 1). Before TEM analysis, AgNP sample from stock suspension was sonicated for at least 30 minutes in nanopure water. The same samples were used for DLS analysis which showed 20-30 nm range at 5 ppm concentration. For DLS hydrodynamic diameter measurement, ALV-CGS3 (ALVgmbh, Langen, Germany) was used.

Bottom Line: Selenium, an essential trace element that has been known to carry protecting property from heavy metals, was tested for its ameliorating potential in the cells exposed to AgNP.Results showed that AgNP reduced cell viability.It is concluded that AgNP induces mitochondrial stress and treatment with selenite is capable of preventing the adverse effects of AgNP on the mitochondria.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: 1. Department of Comprehensive Medicine, General Hospital of Ningxia Medical University, Yinchuan, Ningxia, P.R. China ; 4. Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Biomanufacturing Research Institute and Technological Enterprise (BRITE), North Carolina Central University, Durham, North Carolina, USA.

ABSTRACT
Silver nanoparticles (AgNP), one of the most commonly used engineered nanomaterial for biomedical and industrial applications, has shown a toxic potential to our ecosystems and humans. In this study, murine hippocampal neuronal HT22 cells were used to delineate subcellular responses and mechanisms to AgNP by assessing the response levels of caspase-3, mitochondrial oxygen consumption, reactive oxygen species (ROS), and mitochondrial membrane potential in addition to cell viability testing. Selenium, an essential trace element that has been known to carry protecting property from heavy metals, was tested for its ameliorating potential in the cells exposed to AgNP. Results showed that AgNP reduced cell viability. The toxicity was associated with mitochondrial membrane depolarization, increased accumulation of ROS, elevated mitochondrial oxygen consumption, and caspase-3 activation. Treatment with sodium selenite reduced cell death, stabilized mitochondrial membrane potential and oxygen consumption rate, and prevented accumulation of ROS and activation of caspase-3. It is concluded that AgNP induces mitochondrial stress and treatment with selenite is capable of preventing the adverse effects of AgNP on the mitochondria.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus