Limits...
Essences in metabolic engineering of lignan biosynthesis.

Satake H, Koyama T, Bahabadi SE, Matsumoto E, Ono E, Murata J - Metabolites (2015)

Bottom Line: Accordingly, the development of new procedures for lignan production is of keen interest.Optimization of light conditions, utilization of a wide range of elicitor treatments, and construction of transiently gene-transfected or transgenic lignan-biosynthesizing plants are mainly being attempted.This review will present the basic and latest knowledge regarding metabolic engineering of lignans based on their biosynthetic pathways and biological activities, and the perspectives in lignan production via metabolic engineering.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Bioorganic Research Institute, Suntory Foundation for Life Sciences, Osaka 618-8503, Japan. satake@sunbor.or.jp.

ABSTRACT
Lignans are structurally and functionally diverse phytochemicals biosynthesized in diverse plant species and have received wide attentions as leading compounds of novel drugs for tumor treatment and healthy diets to reduce of the risks of lifestyle-related non-communicable diseases. However, the lineage-specific distribution and the low-amount of production in natural plants, some of which are endangered species, hinder the efficient and stable production of beneficial lignans. Accordingly, the development of new procedures for lignan production is of keen interest. Recent marked advances in the molecular and functional characterization of lignan biosynthetic enzymes and endogenous and exogenous factors for lignan biosynthesis have suggested new methods for the metabolic engineering of lignan biosynthesis cascades leading to the efficient, sustainable, and stable lignan production in plants, including plant cell/organ cultures. Optimization of light conditions, utilization of a wide range of elicitor treatments, and construction of transiently gene-transfected or transgenic lignan-biosynthesizing plants are mainly being attempted. This review will present the basic and latest knowledge regarding metabolic engineering of lignans based on their biosynthetic pathways and biological activities, and the perspectives in lignan production via metabolic engineering.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Biosynthesis Pathways of Major Lignans. Chemical Conversions at Each Step are Indicated in Red. Solid and Broken Lines Represent Identified and Unidentified Enzyme-catalyzed Reactions, Respectively.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4495373&req=5

metabolites-05-00270-f002: Biosynthesis Pathways of Major Lignans. Chemical Conversions at Each Step are Indicated in Red. Solid and Broken Lines Represent Identified and Unidentified Enzyme-catalyzed Reactions, Respectively.

Mentions: To date, two major lignan biosynthesis pathways have been identified. Both of the pathways originate from the coupling of achiral E-coniferyl alcohol, leading to the generation of pinoresinol, a basal lignan (Figure 2). Although a pinoresinol synthase has yet to be identifed, a dirigent protein (DIR) was shown to participate in the stereo-specific dimerization of E-coniferyl alcohol [55]. In diverse plant species including Forsythia, Linum, and Podophyllum, pinoresinol is stepwisely reduced to lariciresinol and then secoisolariciresinol by pinoresinol-lariciresinol reductase (PLR), a member of the pinoresinol-lariciresinol/isoflavone/phenylcoumaran benzylic ether reductase (PIP) family [55,56,57,58,59,60,61]. PLR converts pinoresinol to secoisolariciresinol via lariciresinol (Figure 2). Pinoresinol also undergoes glucosylation by UGT71A18, a UDP-glucose-dependent glucosyltranferase [62]. Such glycosylation is highly likely to suppress the chemical reactivity of a phenolic hydroxyl group of pinoresinol and to potentiate high water solubility of pinoresinol aglycone, resulting in large and stable amounts of pinoresinol [1,2,11,12]. Indeed, approximately 90% of pinoresinol is accumulated in its glucosylated form in Forsythia spp. [63,64]. PLR-catalyzed metabolism and UGT71A18-directed glucosylation are reciprocally competitive pathways (Figure 2), given that both of them share pinoresinol as a substrate. Intriguingly, PLR shows opposite seasonal alteration in gene expression against UGT71A18; in Forsythia leaves in Japan, PLR gene is intensely expressed from April to August but poorly from September to November, whereas gene expression of UGT71A18 is observed at high level from September to November, but at faint or no level from April to August, at least, in Japan [64]. These findings indicate that PLR and UGT71A18 participate in the competitive regulation of lignan biosynthesis via pinoresinol metabolism. In A. thaliana, AtPrR1 and 2 are only responsible for the reduction of pinoresinol to lariciresinol [60], and lariciresinol and pinoresinol are glucosylated by another novel UDP-glucose-dependent glucosyltranferase, UGT71C1 [65].


Essences in metabolic engineering of lignan biosynthesis.

Satake H, Koyama T, Bahabadi SE, Matsumoto E, Ono E, Murata J - Metabolites (2015)

Biosynthesis Pathways of Major Lignans. Chemical Conversions at Each Step are Indicated in Red. Solid and Broken Lines Represent Identified and Unidentified Enzyme-catalyzed Reactions, Respectively.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4495373&req=5

metabolites-05-00270-f002: Biosynthesis Pathways of Major Lignans. Chemical Conversions at Each Step are Indicated in Red. Solid and Broken Lines Represent Identified and Unidentified Enzyme-catalyzed Reactions, Respectively.
Mentions: To date, two major lignan biosynthesis pathways have been identified. Both of the pathways originate from the coupling of achiral E-coniferyl alcohol, leading to the generation of pinoresinol, a basal lignan (Figure 2). Although a pinoresinol synthase has yet to be identifed, a dirigent protein (DIR) was shown to participate in the stereo-specific dimerization of E-coniferyl alcohol [55]. In diverse plant species including Forsythia, Linum, and Podophyllum, pinoresinol is stepwisely reduced to lariciresinol and then secoisolariciresinol by pinoresinol-lariciresinol reductase (PLR), a member of the pinoresinol-lariciresinol/isoflavone/phenylcoumaran benzylic ether reductase (PIP) family [55,56,57,58,59,60,61]. PLR converts pinoresinol to secoisolariciresinol via lariciresinol (Figure 2). Pinoresinol also undergoes glucosylation by UGT71A18, a UDP-glucose-dependent glucosyltranferase [62]. Such glycosylation is highly likely to suppress the chemical reactivity of a phenolic hydroxyl group of pinoresinol and to potentiate high water solubility of pinoresinol aglycone, resulting in large and stable amounts of pinoresinol [1,2,11,12]. Indeed, approximately 90% of pinoresinol is accumulated in its glucosylated form in Forsythia spp. [63,64]. PLR-catalyzed metabolism and UGT71A18-directed glucosylation are reciprocally competitive pathways (Figure 2), given that both of them share pinoresinol as a substrate. Intriguingly, PLR shows opposite seasonal alteration in gene expression against UGT71A18; in Forsythia leaves in Japan, PLR gene is intensely expressed from April to August but poorly from September to November, whereas gene expression of UGT71A18 is observed at high level from September to November, but at faint or no level from April to August, at least, in Japan [64]. These findings indicate that PLR and UGT71A18 participate in the competitive regulation of lignan biosynthesis via pinoresinol metabolism. In A. thaliana, AtPrR1 and 2 are only responsible for the reduction of pinoresinol to lariciresinol [60], and lariciresinol and pinoresinol are glucosylated by another novel UDP-glucose-dependent glucosyltranferase, UGT71C1 [65].

Bottom Line: Accordingly, the development of new procedures for lignan production is of keen interest.Optimization of light conditions, utilization of a wide range of elicitor treatments, and construction of transiently gene-transfected or transgenic lignan-biosynthesizing plants are mainly being attempted.This review will present the basic and latest knowledge regarding metabolic engineering of lignans based on their biosynthetic pathways and biological activities, and the perspectives in lignan production via metabolic engineering.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Bioorganic Research Institute, Suntory Foundation for Life Sciences, Osaka 618-8503, Japan. satake@sunbor.or.jp.

ABSTRACT
Lignans are structurally and functionally diverse phytochemicals biosynthesized in diverse plant species and have received wide attentions as leading compounds of novel drugs for tumor treatment and healthy diets to reduce of the risks of lifestyle-related non-communicable diseases. However, the lineage-specific distribution and the low-amount of production in natural plants, some of which are endangered species, hinder the efficient and stable production of beneficial lignans. Accordingly, the development of new procedures for lignan production is of keen interest. Recent marked advances in the molecular and functional characterization of lignan biosynthetic enzymes and endogenous and exogenous factors for lignan biosynthesis have suggested new methods for the metabolic engineering of lignan biosynthesis cascades leading to the efficient, sustainable, and stable lignan production in plants, including plant cell/organ cultures. Optimization of light conditions, utilization of a wide range of elicitor treatments, and construction of transiently gene-transfected or transgenic lignan-biosynthesizing plants are mainly being attempted. This review will present the basic and latest knowledge regarding metabolic engineering of lignans based on their biosynthetic pathways and biological activities, and the perspectives in lignan production via metabolic engineering.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus