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Pregnancy intendedness and the association with physical, sexual and emotional abuse - a European multi-country cross-sectional study.

Lukasse M, Laanpere M, Karro H, Kristjansdottir H, Schroll AM, Van Parys AS, Wangel AM, Schei B, Bidens study gro - BMC Pregnancy Childbirth (2015)

Bottom Line: Women with an unintended pregnancy were significantly younger, had less education, suffered economic hardship, had a different ethnic background from the regional majority and more frequently were not living with their partner.Women with a history of any lifetime abuse had significantly higher odds of unintended pregnancy, also after adjusting for confounding factors, AOR for any lifetime abuse 1.41 (95 % CI 1.23-1.60) and for recent abuse AOR 2.03 (95 % CI 1.54-2.68).Women who have experienced any lifetime abuse are significantly more likely to have an unintended pregnancy.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Institutt for Health, Nutrition and Management, Faculty of Health Sciences, Oslo and Akershus University College of Applied Sciences, Oslo, Norway. Mirjam.lukasse@Hioa.no.

ABSTRACT

Background: Unintended pregnancies are common and when not resulting in a termination of pregnancy may lead to unintended childbirth. Unintended pregnancies are associated with increased health risks, also for women for whom pregnancy continues to childbirth. Our objective was to present the prevalence of unintended pregnancy in six European countries among pregnant women attending routine antenatal care, and to investigate the association with a history of physical, sexual and emotional abuse.

Methods: A prospective cross-sectional study, of 7102 pregnant women who filled out a questionnaire during pregnancy as part of a multi-country cohort study (Bidens) with the participating countries: Belgium, Iceland, Denmark, Estonia, Norway and Sweden. A validated instrument, the Norvold Abuse Questionnaire (NorAq) consisting of 10 descriptive questions measured abuse. Pregnancy intendedness was assessed using a single question asking women if this pregnancy was planned. Cross-tabulation, Chi-square tests and binary logistic regression analysis were used.

Results: Approximately one-fifth (19.2 %) of all women reported their current pregnancy to be unintended. Women with an unintended pregnancy were significantly younger, had less education, suffered economic hardship, had a different ethnic background from the regional majority and more frequently were not living with their partner. The prevalence of an unintended pregnancy among women reporting any lifetime abuse was 24.5 %, and 38.5 % among women reporting recent abuse. Women with a history of any lifetime abuse had significantly higher odds of unintended pregnancy, also after adjusting for confounding factors, AOR for any lifetime abuse 1.41 (95 % CI 1.23-1.60) and for recent abuse AOR 2.03 (95 % CI 1.54-2.68).

Conclusion: Women who have experienced any lifetime abuse are significantly more likely to have an unintended pregnancy. This is particularly true for women reporting recent abuse, suggesting that women living in a violent relationship have less control over their fertility.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

The Norvold Abuse questions (NorAq)
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Fig1: The Norvold Abuse questions (NorAq)

Mentions: Whether a pregnancy was intended or not was assessed using a single question which in 5 of the 6 countries was worded “Was this pregnancy planned?” with a “yes” or “no” answering option. In Sweden it was considered culturally appropriate to pose the question as “Was this pregnancy unplanned?” with the same response options. The responses were harmonized through coding. The questionnaire included questions on socio-economic background, general and mental health, and obstetric history. The questions on abuse were taken from the Norvold Abuse Questionnaire (NorAQ), which was developed in a Nordic multi-center study among gynecological patients [29]. This validated instrument includes 10 descriptive questions measuring emotional, physical, and sexual abuse at increasing levels of severity, i.e. mild, moderate and severe (Fig. 1) [30]. For each type and level of abuse the answer categories were “no”, “yes as a child”, “yes as an adult”, or “yes both as a child and as an adult”. The responses were classified according to the most severe level reported and categorized as either adult or childhood abuse. Women were defined as having experienced any abuse/any lifetime abuse if they answered yes to at least one of the questions of sexual, emotional and physical abuse [29]. The question measuring mild physical abuse has shown low specificity in the validation study and was therefore excluded [30].Fig. 1


Pregnancy intendedness and the association with physical, sexual and emotional abuse - a European multi-country cross-sectional study.

Lukasse M, Laanpere M, Karro H, Kristjansdottir H, Schroll AM, Van Parys AS, Wangel AM, Schei B, Bidens study gro - BMC Pregnancy Childbirth (2015)

The Norvold Abuse questions (NorAq)
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4494794&req=5

Fig1: The Norvold Abuse questions (NorAq)
Mentions: Whether a pregnancy was intended or not was assessed using a single question which in 5 of the 6 countries was worded “Was this pregnancy planned?” with a “yes” or “no” answering option. In Sweden it was considered culturally appropriate to pose the question as “Was this pregnancy unplanned?” with the same response options. The responses were harmonized through coding. The questionnaire included questions on socio-economic background, general and mental health, and obstetric history. The questions on abuse were taken from the Norvold Abuse Questionnaire (NorAQ), which was developed in a Nordic multi-center study among gynecological patients [29]. This validated instrument includes 10 descriptive questions measuring emotional, physical, and sexual abuse at increasing levels of severity, i.e. mild, moderate and severe (Fig. 1) [30]. For each type and level of abuse the answer categories were “no”, “yes as a child”, “yes as an adult”, or “yes both as a child and as an adult”. The responses were classified according to the most severe level reported and categorized as either adult or childhood abuse. Women were defined as having experienced any abuse/any lifetime abuse if they answered yes to at least one of the questions of sexual, emotional and physical abuse [29]. The question measuring mild physical abuse has shown low specificity in the validation study and was therefore excluded [30].Fig. 1

Bottom Line: Women with an unintended pregnancy were significantly younger, had less education, suffered economic hardship, had a different ethnic background from the regional majority and more frequently were not living with their partner.Women with a history of any lifetime abuse had significantly higher odds of unintended pregnancy, also after adjusting for confounding factors, AOR for any lifetime abuse 1.41 (95 % CI 1.23-1.60) and for recent abuse AOR 2.03 (95 % CI 1.54-2.68).Women who have experienced any lifetime abuse are significantly more likely to have an unintended pregnancy.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Institutt for Health, Nutrition and Management, Faculty of Health Sciences, Oslo and Akershus University College of Applied Sciences, Oslo, Norway. Mirjam.lukasse@Hioa.no.

ABSTRACT

Background: Unintended pregnancies are common and when not resulting in a termination of pregnancy may lead to unintended childbirth. Unintended pregnancies are associated with increased health risks, also for women for whom pregnancy continues to childbirth. Our objective was to present the prevalence of unintended pregnancy in six European countries among pregnant women attending routine antenatal care, and to investigate the association with a history of physical, sexual and emotional abuse.

Methods: A prospective cross-sectional study, of 7102 pregnant women who filled out a questionnaire during pregnancy as part of a multi-country cohort study (Bidens) with the participating countries: Belgium, Iceland, Denmark, Estonia, Norway and Sweden. A validated instrument, the Norvold Abuse Questionnaire (NorAq) consisting of 10 descriptive questions measured abuse. Pregnancy intendedness was assessed using a single question asking women if this pregnancy was planned. Cross-tabulation, Chi-square tests and binary logistic regression analysis were used.

Results: Approximately one-fifth (19.2 %) of all women reported their current pregnancy to be unintended. Women with an unintended pregnancy were significantly younger, had less education, suffered economic hardship, had a different ethnic background from the regional majority and more frequently were not living with their partner. The prevalence of an unintended pregnancy among women reporting any lifetime abuse was 24.5 %, and 38.5 % among women reporting recent abuse. Women with a history of any lifetime abuse had significantly higher odds of unintended pregnancy, also after adjusting for confounding factors, AOR for any lifetime abuse 1.41 (95 % CI 1.23-1.60) and for recent abuse AOR 2.03 (95 % CI 1.54-2.68).

Conclusion: Women who have experienced any lifetime abuse are significantly more likely to have an unintended pregnancy. This is particularly true for women reporting recent abuse, suggesting that women living in a violent relationship have less control over their fertility.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus