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The administration of Fructus Schisandrae attenuates dexamethasone-induced muscle atrophy in mice.

Kim JW, Ku SK, Han MH, Kim KY, Kim SG, Kim GY, Hwang HJ, Kim BW, Kim CM, Choi YH - Int. J. Mol. Med. (2015)

Bottom Line: In addition, the destruction of the gastrocnemius antioxidant defense system was also inhibited by the administration of FS in a dose-dependent manner.The overall effects of treatment with 500 mg/kg FS were comparable to those observed following treatment with 50 mg/kg oxymetholone.The results from the present study support the hypothesis that FS has a favorable ameliorating effect on muscle atrophy induced by dexamethasone, by exerting anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects on muscle fibers, which may be due to an increase in protein synthesis and a decrease in protein degradation.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Research Institute, Bio-Port Korea INC, Marine Bio-industry Development Center, Busan 619-912, Republic of Korea.

ABSTRACT
In the present study, we aimed to determine whether ethanol extracts of Fructus Schisandrae (FS), the dried fruit of Schizandra chinensis Baillon, mitigates the development of dexamethasone-induced muscle atrophy. Adult SPF/VAT outbred CrljOri:CD1 (ICR) mice were either treated with dexamethasone to induce muscle atrophy. Some mice were treated with various concentrations of FS or oxymetholone, a 17α-alkylated anabolic-androgenic steroid. Muscle thickness and weight, calf muscle strength, and serum creatine and creatine kinase (CK) levels were then measured. The administration of FS attenuated the decrease in calf thickness, gastrocnemius muscle thickness, muscle strength and weight, fiber diameter and serum lactate dehydrogenase levels in the gastrocnemius muscle bundles which was induced by dexamethasone in a dose-dependent manner. Treatment with FS also prevented the dexamethasone-induced increase in serum creatine and creatine kinase levels, histopathological muscle fiber microvacuolation and fibrosis, and the immunoreactivity of muscle fibers for nitrotyrosine, 4-hydroxynonenal, inducible nitric oxide synthase and myostatin. In addition, the destruction of the gastrocnemius antioxidant defense system was also inhibited by the administration of FS in a dose-dependent manner. FS downregulated the mRNA expression of atrogin-1 and muscle ring-finger protein-1 (involved in muscle protein degradation), myostatin (a potent negative regulator of muscle growth) and sirtuin 1 (a representative inhibitor of muscle regeneration), but upregulated the mRNA expression of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, Akt1, adenosine A1 receptor and transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily V member 4, involved in muscle growth and the activation of protein synthesis. The overall effects of treatment with 500 mg/kg FS were comparable to those observed following treatment with 50 mg/kg oxymetholone. The results from the present study support the hypothesis that FS has a favorable ameliorating effect on muscle atrophy induced by dexamethasone, by exerting anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects on muscle fibers, which may be due to an increase in protein synthesis and a decrease in protein degradation.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Changes in the gastrocnemius muscle weight in mice with dexamethasone-induced muscle atrophy. After measuringgastrocnemius muscle thickness at sacrifice, the gastrocnemius muscle mass was carefully separated from the tibia and fibula bones and weighed (absolute wet-weight). Values are expressed as the means ± SD of 8 mice. ap<0.01 as compared with the intact vehicle control by the LSD test. bp<0.01 as compared with the dexamethasone control by the LSD test. cp<0.01 and dp<0.05 as compared with the intact vehicle control by the MW test. ep<0.01 as compared with the dexamethasone control by the MW test. FS, Fructus Schisandrae.
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f4-ijmm-36-01-0029: Changes in the gastrocnemius muscle weight in mice with dexamethasone-induced muscle atrophy. After measuringgastrocnemius muscle thickness at sacrifice, the gastrocnemius muscle mass was carefully separated from the tibia and fibula bones and weighed (absolute wet-weight). Values are expressed as the means ± SD of 8 mice. ap<0.01 as compared with the intact vehicle control by the LSD test. bp<0.01 as compared with the dexamethasone control by the LSD test. cp<0.01 and dp<0.05 as compared with the intact vehicle control by the MW test. ep<0.01 as compared with the dexamethasone control by the MW test. FS, Fructus Schisandrae.

Mentions: To investigate muscle loss following treatment, gastrocnemius muscle thickness and weight were measured immediately after biopsy. As shown in Fig. 3, a significant decrease in gastrocnemius muscle thickness after the exposure of the muscle (through skin removal) was observed in the mice in the dexamethasone control group compared with the mice in the intact vehicle control group. A significant increase in gastrocnemius muscle thickness was observed in the mice administered oxymetholone and all 3 different concentrations of FS compared with the dexamethasone controls. A significant decrease in absolute wet-weight and the relative weight of the gastrocnemius muscle were also observed in the mice in the dexamethasone control group compared with the mice in the intact vehicle control group (Fig. 4). The adminsitration of FS effectively prevented the dexamethasone-induced decrease in muscle weight compared with the dexamethasone controls (Fig. 4).


The administration of Fructus Schisandrae attenuates dexamethasone-induced muscle atrophy in mice.

Kim JW, Ku SK, Han MH, Kim KY, Kim SG, Kim GY, Hwang HJ, Kim BW, Kim CM, Choi YH - Int. J. Mol. Med. (2015)

Changes in the gastrocnemius muscle weight in mice with dexamethasone-induced muscle atrophy. After measuringgastrocnemius muscle thickness at sacrifice, the gastrocnemius muscle mass was carefully separated from the tibia and fibula bones and weighed (absolute wet-weight). Values are expressed as the means ± SD of 8 mice. ap<0.01 as compared with the intact vehicle control by the LSD test. bp<0.01 as compared with the dexamethasone control by the LSD test. cp<0.01 and dp<0.05 as compared with the intact vehicle control by the MW test. ep<0.01 as compared with the dexamethasone control by the MW test. FS, Fructus Schisandrae.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4494578&req=5

f4-ijmm-36-01-0029: Changes in the gastrocnemius muscle weight in mice with dexamethasone-induced muscle atrophy. After measuringgastrocnemius muscle thickness at sacrifice, the gastrocnemius muscle mass was carefully separated from the tibia and fibula bones and weighed (absolute wet-weight). Values are expressed as the means ± SD of 8 mice. ap<0.01 as compared with the intact vehicle control by the LSD test. bp<0.01 as compared with the dexamethasone control by the LSD test. cp<0.01 and dp<0.05 as compared with the intact vehicle control by the MW test. ep<0.01 as compared with the dexamethasone control by the MW test. FS, Fructus Schisandrae.
Mentions: To investigate muscle loss following treatment, gastrocnemius muscle thickness and weight were measured immediately after biopsy. As shown in Fig. 3, a significant decrease in gastrocnemius muscle thickness after the exposure of the muscle (through skin removal) was observed in the mice in the dexamethasone control group compared with the mice in the intact vehicle control group. A significant increase in gastrocnemius muscle thickness was observed in the mice administered oxymetholone and all 3 different concentrations of FS compared with the dexamethasone controls. A significant decrease in absolute wet-weight and the relative weight of the gastrocnemius muscle were also observed in the mice in the dexamethasone control group compared with the mice in the intact vehicle control group (Fig. 4). The adminsitration of FS effectively prevented the dexamethasone-induced decrease in muscle weight compared with the dexamethasone controls (Fig. 4).

Bottom Line: In addition, the destruction of the gastrocnemius antioxidant defense system was also inhibited by the administration of FS in a dose-dependent manner.The overall effects of treatment with 500 mg/kg FS were comparable to those observed following treatment with 50 mg/kg oxymetholone.The results from the present study support the hypothesis that FS has a favorable ameliorating effect on muscle atrophy induced by dexamethasone, by exerting anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects on muscle fibers, which may be due to an increase in protein synthesis and a decrease in protein degradation.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Research Institute, Bio-Port Korea INC, Marine Bio-industry Development Center, Busan 619-912, Republic of Korea.

ABSTRACT
In the present study, we aimed to determine whether ethanol extracts of Fructus Schisandrae (FS), the dried fruit of Schizandra chinensis Baillon, mitigates the development of dexamethasone-induced muscle atrophy. Adult SPF/VAT outbred CrljOri:CD1 (ICR) mice were either treated with dexamethasone to induce muscle atrophy. Some mice were treated with various concentrations of FS or oxymetholone, a 17α-alkylated anabolic-androgenic steroid. Muscle thickness and weight, calf muscle strength, and serum creatine and creatine kinase (CK) levels were then measured. The administration of FS attenuated the decrease in calf thickness, gastrocnemius muscle thickness, muscle strength and weight, fiber diameter and serum lactate dehydrogenase levels in the gastrocnemius muscle bundles which was induced by dexamethasone in a dose-dependent manner. Treatment with FS also prevented the dexamethasone-induced increase in serum creatine and creatine kinase levels, histopathological muscle fiber microvacuolation and fibrosis, and the immunoreactivity of muscle fibers for nitrotyrosine, 4-hydroxynonenal, inducible nitric oxide synthase and myostatin. In addition, the destruction of the gastrocnemius antioxidant defense system was also inhibited by the administration of FS in a dose-dependent manner. FS downregulated the mRNA expression of atrogin-1 and muscle ring-finger protein-1 (involved in muscle protein degradation), myostatin (a potent negative regulator of muscle growth) and sirtuin 1 (a representative inhibitor of muscle regeneration), but upregulated the mRNA expression of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, Akt1, adenosine A1 receptor and transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily V member 4, involved in muscle growth and the activation of protein synthesis. The overall effects of treatment with 500 mg/kg FS were comparable to those observed following treatment with 50 mg/kg oxymetholone. The results from the present study support the hypothesis that FS has a favorable ameliorating effect on muscle atrophy induced by dexamethasone, by exerting anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects on muscle fibers, which may be due to an increase in protein synthesis and a decrease in protein degradation.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus