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The administration of Fructus Schisandrae attenuates dexamethasone-induced muscle atrophy in mice.

Kim JW, Ku SK, Han MH, Kim KY, Kim SG, Kim GY, Hwang HJ, Kim BW, Kim CM, Choi YH - Int. J. Mol. Med. (2015)

Bottom Line: In addition, the destruction of the gastrocnemius antioxidant defense system was also inhibited by the administration of FS in a dose-dependent manner.The overall effects of treatment with 500 mg/kg FS were comparable to those observed following treatment with 50 mg/kg oxymetholone.The results from the present study support the hypothesis that FS has a favorable ameliorating effect on muscle atrophy induced by dexamethasone, by exerting anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects on muscle fibers, which may be due to an increase in protein synthesis and a decrease in protein degradation.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Research Institute, Bio-Port Korea INC, Marine Bio-industry Development Center, Busan 619-912, Republic of Korea.

ABSTRACT
In the present study, we aimed to determine whether ethanol extracts of Fructus Schisandrae (FS), the dried fruit of Schizandra chinensis Baillon, mitigates the development of dexamethasone-induced muscle atrophy. Adult SPF/VAT outbred CrljOri:CD1 (ICR) mice were either treated with dexamethasone to induce muscle atrophy. Some mice were treated with various concentrations of FS or oxymetholone, a 17α-alkylated anabolic-androgenic steroid. Muscle thickness and weight, calf muscle strength, and serum creatine and creatine kinase (CK) levels were then measured. The administration of FS attenuated the decrease in calf thickness, gastrocnemius muscle thickness, muscle strength and weight, fiber diameter and serum lactate dehydrogenase levels in the gastrocnemius muscle bundles which was induced by dexamethasone in a dose-dependent manner. Treatment with FS also prevented the dexamethasone-induced increase in serum creatine and creatine kinase levels, histopathological muscle fiber microvacuolation and fibrosis, and the immunoreactivity of muscle fibers for nitrotyrosine, 4-hydroxynonenal, inducible nitric oxide synthase and myostatin. In addition, the destruction of the gastrocnemius antioxidant defense system was also inhibited by the administration of FS in a dose-dependent manner. FS downregulated the mRNA expression of atrogin-1 and muscle ring-finger protein-1 (involved in muscle protein degradation), myostatin (a potent negative regulator of muscle growth) and sirtuin 1 (a representative inhibitor of muscle regeneration), but upregulated the mRNA expression of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, Akt1, adenosine A1 receptor and transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily V member 4, involved in muscle growth and the activation of protein synthesis. The overall effects of treatment with 500 mg/kg FS were comparable to those observed following treatment with 50 mg/kg oxymetholone. The results from the present study support the hypothesis that FS has a favorable ameliorating effect on muscle atrophy induced by dexamethasone, by exerting anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects on muscle fibers, which may be due to an increase in protein synthesis and a decrease in protein degradation.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Changes in calf thickness in mice with dexamethasone-induced muscle atrophy. The thickness of the left hind calf was measured at 1 day before and on days 0, 1, 7, 14, 19, 23 and 24 of the test material administration, as described in the Materials and methods. Values are expressed as the means ± SD of 8 mice. Days -1 and 24 indicate 1 day before the start of test material administration and at sacrifice, respectively. Zero indicates the start of the test material administration, at 2 weeks before the initial dexamethasone treatment. All animals were fasted overnight before the first test material administration and before sacrifice (arrows). ap<0.01 as compared with the intact vehicle control by the LSD test. bp<0.01 as compared with the dexamethasone control by the LSD test. FS, Fructus Schisandrae.
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f2-ijmm-36-01-0029: Changes in calf thickness in mice with dexamethasone-induced muscle atrophy. The thickness of the left hind calf was measured at 1 day before and on days 0, 1, 7, 14, 19, 23 and 24 of the test material administration, as described in the Materials and methods. Values are expressed as the means ± SD of 8 mice. Days -1 and 24 indicate 1 day before the start of test material administration and at sacrifice, respectively. Zero indicates the start of the test material administration, at 2 weeks before the initial dexamethasone treatment. All animals were fasted overnight before the first test material administration and before sacrifice (arrows). ap<0.01 as compared with the intact vehicle control by the LSD test. bp<0.01 as compared with the dexamethasone control by the LSD test. FS, Fructus Schisandrae.

Mentions: As shown in Fig. 1, the mice in the dexamethasone control group presented with progressive body weight loss throughout the study as compared with the intact vehicle control group. However, this decrease in body weight was significantly inhibited by treatment with oxymetholone and all 3 concentrations of FS at the final (24th) administration and at sacrifice. As was expected, treatment with dexamethasone caused a significant decrease in calf thickness compared with the intact vehicle controls from day 19 after the administration of the first test substance, the day of the 5th dexamethasone treatment until sacrifice (Fig. 2). This decrease in calf thickness was also significantly inhibited in a dose-dependent manner by treatment with FS compared with the dexamethasone controls. In this study, the oxymetholone-treated mice showed a significant increase in calf thickness from the 14th treatment compared to the mice in the intact vehicle control and the dexamethasone control groups.


The administration of Fructus Schisandrae attenuates dexamethasone-induced muscle atrophy in mice.

Kim JW, Ku SK, Han MH, Kim KY, Kim SG, Kim GY, Hwang HJ, Kim BW, Kim CM, Choi YH - Int. J. Mol. Med. (2015)

Changes in calf thickness in mice with dexamethasone-induced muscle atrophy. The thickness of the left hind calf was measured at 1 day before and on days 0, 1, 7, 14, 19, 23 and 24 of the test material administration, as described in the Materials and methods. Values are expressed as the means ± SD of 8 mice. Days -1 and 24 indicate 1 day before the start of test material administration and at sacrifice, respectively. Zero indicates the start of the test material administration, at 2 weeks before the initial dexamethasone treatment. All animals were fasted overnight before the first test material administration and before sacrifice (arrows). ap<0.01 as compared with the intact vehicle control by the LSD test. bp<0.01 as compared with the dexamethasone control by the LSD test. FS, Fructus Schisandrae.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4494578&req=5

f2-ijmm-36-01-0029: Changes in calf thickness in mice with dexamethasone-induced muscle atrophy. The thickness of the left hind calf was measured at 1 day before and on days 0, 1, 7, 14, 19, 23 and 24 of the test material administration, as described in the Materials and methods. Values are expressed as the means ± SD of 8 mice. Days -1 and 24 indicate 1 day before the start of test material administration and at sacrifice, respectively. Zero indicates the start of the test material administration, at 2 weeks before the initial dexamethasone treatment. All animals were fasted overnight before the first test material administration and before sacrifice (arrows). ap<0.01 as compared with the intact vehicle control by the LSD test. bp<0.01 as compared with the dexamethasone control by the LSD test. FS, Fructus Schisandrae.
Mentions: As shown in Fig. 1, the mice in the dexamethasone control group presented with progressive body weight loss throughout the study as compared with the intact vehicle control group. However, this decrease in body weight was significantly inhibited by treatment with oxymetholone and all 3 concentrations of FS at the final (24th) administration and at sacrifice. As was expected, treatment with dexamethasone caused a significant decrease in calf thickness compared with the intact vehicle controls from day 19 after the administration of the first test substance, the day of the 5th dexamethasone treatment until sacrifice (Fig. 2). This decrease in calf thickness was also significantly inhibited in a dose-dependent manner by treatment with FS compared with the dexamethasone controls. In this study, the oxymetholone-treated mice showed a significant increase in calf thickness from the 14th treatment compared to the mice in the intact vehicle control and the dexamethasone control groups.

Bottom Line: In addition, the destruction of the gastrocnemius antioxidant defense system was also inhibited by the administration of FS in a dose-dependent manner.The overall effects of treatment with 500 mg/kg FS were comparable to those observed following treatment with 50 mg/kg oxymetholone.The results from the present study support the hypothesis that FS has a favorable ameliorating effect on muscle atrophy induced by dexamethasone, by exerting anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects on muscle fibers, which may be due to an increase in protein synthesis and a decrease in protein degradation.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Research Institute, Bio-Port Korea INC, Marine Bio-industry Development Center, Busan 619-912, Republic of Korea.

ABSTRACT
In the present study, we aimed to determine whether ethanol extracts of Fructus Schisandrae (FS), the dried fruit of Schizandra chinensis Baillon, mitigates the development of dexamethasone-induced muscle atrophy. Adult SPF/VAT outbred CrljOri:CD1 (ICR) mice were either treated with dexamethasone to induce muscle atrophy. Some mice were treated with various concentrations of FS or oxymetholone, a 17α-alkylated anabolic-androgenic steroid. Muscle thickness and weight, calf muscle strength, and serum creatine and creatine kinase (CK) levels were then measured. The administration of FS attenuated the decrease in calf thickness, gastrocnemius muscle thickness, muscle strength and weight, fiber diameter and serum lactate dehydrogenase levels in the gastrocnemius muscle bundles which was induced by dexamethasone in a dose-dependent manner. Treatment with FS also prevented the dexamethasone-induced increase in serum creatine and creatine kinase levels, histopathological muscle fiber microvacuolation and fibrosis, and the immunoreactivity of muscle fibers for nitrotyrosine, 4-hydroxynonenal, inducible nitric oxide synthase and myostatin. In addition, the destruction of the gastrocnemius antioxidant defense system was also inhibited by the administration of FS in a dose-dependent manner. FS downregulated the mRNA expression of atrogin-1 and muscle ring-finger protein-1 (involved in muscle protein degradation), myostatin (a potent negative regulator of muscle growth) and sirtuin 1 (a representative inhibitor of muscle regeneration), but upregulated the mRNA expression of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, Akt1, adenosine A1 receptor and transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily V member 4, involved in muscle growth and the activation of protein synthesis. The overall effects of treatment with 500 mg/kg FS were comparable to those observed following treatment with 50 mg/kg oxymetholone. The results from the present study support the hypothesis that FS has a favorable ameliorating effect on muscle atrophy induced by dexamethasone, by exerting anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects on muscle fibers, which may be due to an increase in protein synthesis and a decrease in protein degradation.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus