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Fetal Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Malformations Associated with Heterotaxy.

Loomba R, Shah PH, Anderson RH - Cureus (2015)

Bottom Line: One such syndrome is so-called "visceral heterotaxy", in which there is typically an isomeric, rather than a lateralized, arrangement of the thoracic and abdominal organs.Typically associated with complex congenital cardiac malformations, heterotaxy can also involve the central nervous system, and produce pulmonary, gastrointestinal, immunologic, and genitourinary malformations.In this review, we discuss how these findings can be demonstrated using fetal MRI.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Cardiology Dept., Children's Hospital of Wisconsin.

ABSTRACT
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is increasingly used as an investigation during fetal life, particularly for assessment of intracranial masses, congenital diaphragmatic hernia, myelomeningocele, and abdominal masses. As the number of scans increases, so is the variety of congenital malformations being recognized. It is axiomatic that interpretation of the findings is enhanced when attention is paid to the likely findings in the setting of known syndromes, this information then dictating the need for additional acquisition of images. One such syndrome is so-called "visceral heterotaxy", in which there is typically an isomeric, rather than a lateralized, arrangement of the thoracic and abdominal organs. Typically associated with complex congenital cardiac malformations, heterotaxy can also involve the central nervous system, and produce pulmonary, gastrointestinal, immunologic, and genitourinary malformations. In this review, we discuss how these findings can be demonstrated using fetal MRI.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Aqueductal stenosisPanel A is a T2-weighted sagittal image in a 30-week gestational age fetus demonstrating absence of the septum pellucidum, enlargement of the third ventricle (arrow), and ventriculomegaly(*). Panel B is a T2-weighted sagittal image demonstrating lack of a fluid-filled aqueduct of Sylvius (arrow). These findings are consistent with aqueductal stenosis. Image reprinted without changes from Hosseinzadeh, et al. under the creative commons license.
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FIG5: Aqueductal stenosisPanel A is a T2-weighted sagittal image in a 30-week gestational age fetus demonstrating absence of the septum pellucidum, enlargement of the third ventricle (arrow), and ventriculomegaly(*). Panel B is a T2-weighted sagittal image demonstrating lack of a fluid-filled aqueduct of Sylvius (arrow). These findings are consistent with aqueductal stenosis. Image reprinted without changes from Hosseinzadeh, et al. under the creative commons license.

Mentions: Malformations of the central nervous system include asymmetry in cerebral volumes, craniorachischisis, holoprosencephaly (Figure 1), myelomeningocele (Figure 2), spina bifida, Dandy-Walker syndrome (Figure 3), Chiari II malformation (Figure 2), abnormalities of the corpus callosum (Figure 4), aqueductal stenosis (Figure 5), open neural tube defects (Figure 6), spinal meningocele (Figure 7), and occipital meningocele (Figure 8) [31-42].


Fetal Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Malformations Associated with Heterotaxy.

Loomba R, Shah PH, Anderson RH - Cureus (2015)

Aqueductal stenosisPanel A is a T2-weighted sagittal image in a 30-week gestational age fetus demonstrating absence of the septum pellucidum, enlargement of the third ventricle (arrow), and ventriculomegaly(*). Panel B is a T2-weighted sagittal image demonstrating lack of a fluid-filled aqueduct of Sylvius (arrow). These findings are consistent with aqueductal stenosis. Image reprinted without changes from Hosseinzadeh, et al. under the creative commons license.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4494530&req=5

FIG5: Aqueductal stenosisPanel A is a T2-weighted sagittal image in a 30-week gestational age fetus demonstrating absence of the septum pellucidum, enlargement of the third ventricle (arrow), and ventriculomegaly(*). Panel B is a T2-weighted sagittal image demonstrating lack of a fluid-filled aqueduct of Sylvius (arrow). These findings are consistent with aqueductal stenosis. Image reprinted without changes from Hosseinzadeh, et al. under the creative commons license.
Mentions: Malformations of the central nervous system include asymmetry in cerebral volumes, craniorachischisis, holoprosencephaly (Figure 1), myelomeningocele (Figure 2), spina bifida, Dandy-Walker syndrome (Figure 3), Chiari II malformation (Figure 2), abnormalities of the corpus callosum (Figure 4), aqueductal stenosis (Figure 5), open neural tube defects (Figure 6), spinal meningocele (Figure 7), and occipital meningocele (Figure 8) [31-42].

Bottom Line: One such syndrome is so-called "visceral heterotaxy", in which there is typically an isomeric, rather than a lateralized, arrangement of the thoracic and abdominal organs.Typically associated with complex congenital cardiac malformations, heterotaxy can also involve the central nervous system, and produce pulmonary, gastrointestinal, immunologic, and genitourinary malformations.In this review, we discuss how these findings can be demonstrated using fetal MRI.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Cardiology Dept., Children's Hospital of Wisconsin.

ABSTRACT
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is increasingly used as an investigation during fetal life, particularly for assessment of intracranial masses, congenital diaphragmatic hernia, myelomeningocele, and abdominal masses. As the number of scans increases, so is the variety of congenital malformations being recognized. It is axiomatic that interpretation of the findings is enhanced when attention is paid to the likely findings in the setting of known syndromes, this information then dictating the need for additional acquisition of images. One such syndrome is so-called "visceral heterotaxy", in which there is typically an isomeric, rather than a lateralized, arrangement of the thoracic and abdominal organs. Typically associated with complex congenital cardiac malformations, heterotaxy can also involve the central nervous system, and produce pulmonary, gastrointestinal, immunologic, and genitourinary malformations. In this review, we discuss how these findings can be demonstrated using fetal MRI.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus