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Vertical Localization of the Malar Prominence.

Kaptein YE, Kaptein JS, Markarian A - Plast Reconstr Surg Glob Open (2015)

Bottom Line: We assessed the vertical location of the malar prominence relative to other facial landmarks, determined consistency among individuals, and compared this with values used in artistry.No difference was found between gender and age groups or between whites and Hispanics.Our population's value is not different from the value of 0.809 used in artistry, which is based on the Golden Ratio φ.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Otolaryngology - Head & Neck Surgery, Keck School of Medicine, Los Angeles, Calif. Currently, University of Illinois College of Medicine, Chicago, Ill.; Southern California Permanente Medical Group, Los Angeles, Calif.; and Department of Otolaryngology - Head & Neck Surgery, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, Calif.

ABSTRACT

Background: During reconstruction or augmentation, it is important to localize the malar complex in a symmetrical and aesthetically pleasing position. Few studies have determined the location of this feature and none related the location to gender, age, or ethnicity. Some of these have attempted to relate the position to the aesthetically pleasing Golden Ratio φ.

Methods: We assessed the vertical location of the malar prominence relative to other facial landmarks, determined consistency among individuals, and compared this with values used in artistry. Study population consisted of a convenience sample of 67 patients taken from an otolaryngology practice at a large urban medical center. Coordinates of the malar prominence were referenced to distinct facial landmarks from which the ratio of chin-to-malar prominence to chin-to-eye canthus was determined.

Results: Average chin-to-malar prominence distance was 0.793 ± 0.023 (SD) of the chin-to-eye canthus distance. Variability due to the specific image chosen [coefficient of variation (CV) = 1.19%] and combined inter/intrareader variability (CV = 1.71%) validate the methodology. Variability among individuals (CV = 2.84%) indicates population consistency. No difference was found between gender and age groups or between whites and Hispanics. Individuals of other/unknown ethnicities were within the range common to whites and Hispanics. Our population's value is not different from the value of 0.809 used in artistry, which is based on the Golden Ratio φ.

Conclusions: The vertical position of the malar prominence is consistent among individuals, is clinically well-approximated by the value based on the Golden Ratio, and may be useful as a reference for surgical reconstruction or augmentation.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Comparing population’s average cheek height ratio to that predicted by the Golden Ratio. Dashed line represents (φ + 0.5)/(φ + 1) (≈0.809) of height from chin to canthus. The average ratio for our study population is 0.793 (as is that for females alone). Demographic groups include males and females, those under 30 years and those over 31 years, those under 25 years and those over 37 years, and whites and Hispanics. Results for various demographic subgroups are shown as mean ± SD. For this subject, the measured distance from chin to canthus is 10.8 cm, and the difference between our population’s average malar prominence height and the Golden Ratio height is 1.73 mm.
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Figure 3: Comparing population’s average cheek height ratio to that predicted by the Golden Ratio. Dashed line represents (φ + 0.5)/(φ + 1) (≈0.809) of height from chin to canthus. The average ratio for our study population is 0.793 (as is that for females alone). Demographic groups include males and females, those under 30 years and those over 31 years, those under 25 years and those over 37 years, and whites and Hispanics. Results for various demographic subgroups are shown as mean ± SD. For this subject, the measured distance from chin to canthus is 10.8 cm, and the difference between our population’s average malar prominence height and the Golden Ratio height is 1.73 mm.

Mentions: The difference between the cheek height ratios of males (N = 35) versus females (N = 32) was examined (Fig. 3). For males, cheek height ratio based on canthus was found to be 0.794 ± 0.023 (SD). For females, this was 0.793 ± 0.023 (SD). These are not different (P = 0.86).


Vertical Localization of the Malar Prominence.

Kaptein YE, Kaptein JS, Markarian A - Plast Reconstr Surg Glob Open (2015)

Comparing population’s average cheek height ratio to that predicted by the Golden Ratio. Dashed line represents (φ + 0.5)/(φ + 1) (≈0.809) of height from chin to canthus. The average ratio for our study population is 0.793 (as is that for females alone). Demographic groups include males and females, those under 30 years and those over 31 years, those under 25 years and those over 37 years, and whites and Hispanics. Results for various demographic subgroups are shown as mean ± SD. For this subject, the measured distance from chin to canthus is 10.8 cm, and the difference between our population’s average malar prominence height and the Golden Ratio height is 1.73 mm.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4494481&req=5

Figure 3: Comparing population’s average cheek height ratio to that predicted by the Golden Ratio. Dashed line represents (φ + 0.5)/(φ + 1) (≈0.809) of height from chin to canthus. The average ratio for our study population is 0.793 (as is that for females alone). Demographic groups include males and females, those under 30 years and those over 31 years, those under 25 years and those over 37 years, and whites and Hispanics. Results for various demographic subgroups are shown as mean ± SD. For this subject, the measured distance from chin to canthus is 10.8 cm, and the difference between our population’s average malar prominence height and the Golden Ratio height is 1.73 mm.
Mentions: The difference between the cheek height ratios of males (N = 35) versus females (N = 32) was examined (Fig. 3). For males, cheek height ratio based on canthus was found to be 0.794 ± 0.023 (SD). For females, this was 0.793 ± 0.023 (SD). These are not different (P = 0.86).

Bottom Line: We assessed the vertical location of the malar prominence relative to other facial landmarks, determined consistency among individuals, and compared this with values used in artistry.No difference was found between gender and age groups or between whites and Hispanics.Our population's value is not different from the value of 0.809 used in artistry, which is based on the Golden Ratio φ.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Otolaryngology - Head & Neck Surgery, Keck School of Medicine, Los Angeles, Calif. Currently, University of Illinois College of Medicine, Chicago, Ill.; Southern California Permanente Medical Group, Los Angeles, Calif.; and Department of Otolaryngology - Head & Neck Surgery, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, Calif.

ABSTRACT

Background: During reconstruction or augmentation, it is important to localize the malar complex in a symmetrical and aesthetically pleasing position. Few studies have determined the location of this feature and none related the location to gender, age, or ethnicity. Some of these have attempted to relate the position to the aesthetically pleasing Golden Ratio φ.

Methods: We assessed the vertical location of the malar prominence relative to other facial landmarks, determined consistency among individuals, and compared this with values used in artistry. Study population consisted of a convenience sample of 67 patients taken from an otolaryngology practice at a large urban medical center. Coordinates of the malar prominence were referenced to distinct facial landmarks from which the ratio of chin-to-malar prominence to chin-to-eye canthus was determined.

Results: Average chin-to-malar prominence distance was 0.793 ± 0.023 (SD) of the chin-to-eye canthus distance. Variability due to the specific image chosen [coefficient of variation (CV) = 1.19%] and combined inter/intrareader variability (CV = 1.71%) validate the methodology. Variability among individuals (CV = 2.84%) indicates population consistency. No difference was found between gender and age groups or between whites and Hispanics. Individuals of other/unknown ethnicities were within the range common to whites and Hispanics. Our population's value is not different from the value of 0.809 used in artistry, which is based on the Golden Ratio φ.

Conclusions: The vertical position of the malar prominence is consistent among individuals, is clinically well-approximated by the value based on the Golden Ratio, and may be useful as a reference for surgical reconstruction or augmentation.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus