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Searching for Animal Sentience: A Systematic Review of the Scientific Literature.

Proctor HS, Carder G, Cornish AR - Animals (Basel) (2013)

Bottom Line: However, when we consider that much of the research found to accept and utilise animal sentience is performed for the development of human drugs and treatment, it appears that measuring sentience is, after all, not quite as impossible as was previously thought.We drew conclusions on the implications for animal welfare science and argued for the importance of addressing these gaps in our knowledge.We found that there is a need for more research on positive emotional states in animals, and that there is still much to learn about taxa such as invertebrates.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: World Society for the Protection of Animals, 222 Grays Inn Rd., London, WC1X 8HB, UK. helenproctor@wspa-international.org.

ABSTRACT
Knowledge of animal sentience is fundamental to many disciplines and imperative to the animal welfare movement. In this review, we examined what is being explored and discussed, regarding animal sentience, within the scientific literature. Rather than attempting to extract meaning from the many complex and abstract definitions of animal sentience, we searched over two decades of scientific literature using a peer-reviewed list of 174 keywords. The list consisted of human emotions, terminology associated with animal sentience, and traits often thought to be indicative of subjective states. We discovered that very little was actually being explored, and instead there was already much agreement about what animals can feel. Why then is there so much scepticism surrounding the science of animal sentience? Sentience refers to the subjective states of animals, and so is often thought to be impossible to measure objectively. However, when we consider that much of the research found to accept and utilise animal sentience is performed for the development of human drugs and treatment, it appears that measuring sentience is, after all, not quite as impossible as was previously thought. In this paper, we explored what has been published on animal sentience in the scientific literature and where the gaps in research lie. We drew conclusions on the implications for animal welfare science and argued for the importance of addressing these gaps in our knowledge. We found that there is a need for more research on positive emotional states in animals, and that there is still much to learn about taxa such as invertebrates. Such information will not only be useful in supporting and initiating legislative amendments but will help to increase understanding, and potentially positive actions and attitudes towards animals.

No MeSH data available.


The number of reviewed articles using each of the top five species or common names. Data labels refer to the percentage of the total articles.
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animals-03-00882-f002: The number of reviewed articles using each of the top five species or common names. Data labels refer to the percentage of the total articles.

Mentions: We captured detailed information about the animals used for each article, and found that, overall, vertebrates (n = 2,519) were used significantly more than invertebrates (n = 32, X2 = 2,424.61, df = 1, P < 0.001). These two sub-phyla were comprised of 12 taxonomical classes; six vertebrate and six invertebrate. Mammalia was the most popular class of animals used (n = 2,346, 91.89%), followed by Aves (n = 116, 4.54%), and Actinopterygii (n = 45, 1.76%). Climbing down the taxonomical tree we found that these classes gave way to 57 orders, 11 of which were invertebrates, and the remaining 46 were vertebrates. The top five orders and species are shown in Figure 1, Figure 2.


Searching for Animal Sentience: A Systematic Review of the Scientific Literature.

Proctor HS, Carder G, Cornish AR - Animals (Basel) (2013)

The number of reviewed articles using each of the top five species or common names. Data labels refer to the percentage of the total articles.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4494450&req=5

animals-03-00882-f002: The number of reviewed articles using each of the top five species or common names. Data labels refer to the percentage of the total articles.
Mentions: We captured detailed information about the animals used for each article, and found that, overall, vertebrates (n = 2,519) were used significantly more than invertebrates (n = 32, X2 = 2,424.61, df = 1, P < 0.001). These two sub-phyla were comprised of 12 taxonomical classes; six vertebrate and six invertebrate. Mammalia was the most popular class of animals used (n = 2,346, 91.89%), followed by Aves (n = 116, 4.54%), and Actinopterygii (n = 45, 1.76%). Climbing down the taxonomical tree we found that these classes gave way to 57 orders, 11 of which were invertebrates, and the remaining 46 were vertebrates. The top five orders and species are shown in Figure 1, Figure 2.

Bottom Line: However, when we consider that much of the research found to accept and utilise animal sentience is performed for the development of human drugs and treatment, it appears that measuring sentience is, after all, not quite as impossible as was previously thought.We drew conclusions on the implications for animal welfare science and argued for the importance of addressing these gaps in our knowledge.We found that there is a need for more research on positive emotional states in animals, and that there is still much to learn about taxa such as invertebrates.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: World Society for the Protection of Animals, 222 Grays Inn Rd., London, WC1X 8HB, UK. helenproctor@wspa-international.org.

ABSTRACT
Knowledge of animal sentience is fundamental to many disciplines and imperative to the animal welfare movement. In this review, we examined what is being explored and discussed, regarding animal sentience, within the scientific literature. Rather than attempting to extract meaning from the many complex and abstract definitions of animal sentience, we searched over two decades of scientific literature using a peer-reviewed list of 174 keywords. The list consisted of human emotions, terminology associated with animal sentience, and traits often thought to be indicative of subjective states. We discovered that very little was actually being explored, and instead there was already much agreement about what animals can feel. Why then is there so much scepticism surrounding the science of animal sentience? Sentience refers to the subjective states of animals, and so is often thought to be impossible to measure objectively. However, when we consider that much of the research found to accept and utilise animal sentience is performed for the development of human drugs and treatment, it appears that measuring sentience is, after all, not quite as impossible as was previously thought. In this paper, we explored what has been published on animal sentience in the scientific literature and where the gaps in research lie. We drew conclusions on the implications for animal welfare science and argued for the importance of addressing these gaps in our knowledge. We found that there is a need for more research on positive emotional states in animals, and that there is still much to learn about taxa such as invertebrates. Such information will not only be useful in supporting and initiating legislative amendments but will help to increase understanding, and potentially positive actions and attitudes towards animals.

No MeSH data available.