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An Attempt at Captive Breeding of the Endangered Newt Echinotriton andersoni, from the Central Ryukyus in Japan.

Igawa T, Sugawara H, Tado M, Nishitani T, Kurabayashi A, Islam MM, Oumi S, Katsuren S, Fujii T, Sumida M - Animals (Basel) (2013)

Bottom Line: Over the last five breeding seasons, eggs were laid in-cage on slopes near the waterfront.Metamorphosed newts were transferred to plastic containers containing wet sponges kept in a temperature-controlled incubator at 22.5 °C and fed a cricket diet to promote healthy growth.Our findings on the natural breeding and raising of larvae and adults are useful in breeding this endangered species and can be applied to the preservation of other similarly wild and endangered species such as E. chinhaiensis.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Institute for Amphibian Biology, Graduate School of Science, Hiroshima University, 1-3-1 Kagamiyama, Higashihiroshima 739-8526, Japan. tigawa@hiroshima-u.ac.jp.

ABSTRACT
Anderson's crocodile newt (Echinotriton andersoni) is distributed in the Central Ryukyu Islands of southern Japan, but environmental degradation and illegal collection over the last several decades have devastated the local populations. It has therefore been listed as a class B1 endangered species in the IUCN Red List, indicating that it is at high risk of extinction in the wild. The species is also protected by law in both Okinawa and Kagoshima prefectures. An artificial insemination technique using hormonal injections could not be applied to the breeding of this species in the laboratory. In this study we naturally bred the species, and tested a laboratory farming technique using several male and female E. andersoni pairs collected from Okinawa, Amami, and Tokunoshima Islands and subsequently maintained in near-biotopic breeding cages. Among 378 eggs derived from 17 females, 319 (84.4%) became normal tailbud embryos, 274 (72.5%) hatched normally, 213 (56.3%) metamorphosed normally, and 141 (37.3%) became normal two-month-old newts; in addition, 77 one- to three-year-old Tokunoshima newts and 32 Amami larvae are currently still growing normally. Over the last five breeding seasons, eggs were laid in-cage on slopes near the waterfront. Larvae were raised in nets maintained in a temperature-controlled water bath at 20 °C and fed live Tubifex. Metamorphosed newts were transferred to plastic containers containing wet sponges kept in a temperature-controlled incubator at 22.5 °C and fed a cricket diet to promote healthy growth. This is the first published report of successfully propagating an endangered species by using breeding cages in a laboratory setting for captive breeding. Our findings on the natural breeding and raising of larvae and adults are useful in breeding this endangered species and can be applied to the preservation of other similarly wild and endangered species such as E. chinhaiensis.

No MeSH data available.


Map showing the distribution of Echinotriton andersoni in the Ryukyu Islands, and the collection sites.
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animals-03-00680-f001: Map showing the distribution of Echinotriton andersoni in the Ryukyu Islands, and the collection sites.

Mentions: Anderson’s crocodile newt, Echinotriton andersoni, a species endemic to the Ryukyu Islands of southwest Japan (Figure 1), has been described as both a primitive newt and a living fossil originating from the Cenozoic Tertiary period, and is distributed in six islands of the Central Ryukyus—namely, Amami, Uke, Tokunoshima, Okinawa, Sesoko, and Tokashiki Islands [1,2]. This species was also formerly observed in Taiwan [3], where it is currently presumed to be extinct [4], although this requires careful verification [5]. Regrettably, the species has been devastated over the last several decades by illegal collection for the pet trade, predation by the Java mongoose, an invasive species known for its negative impact on native wildlife in Japan [6], and environmental degradation. E. andersoni is now listed as a class B1 endangered species [7] and is designated as a natural monument in both Okinawa and Kagoshima prefectures [8]. It is urgently necessary, therefore, to protect local populations where the number of individuals has decreased or environmental conditions have worsened to levels such that the species is unable to survive by itself and is critically endangered.


An Attempt at Captive Breeding of the Endangered Newt Echinotriton andersoni, from the Central Ryukyus in Japan.

Igawa T, Sugawara H, Tado M, Nishitani T, Kurabayashi A, Islam MM, Oumi S, Katsuren S, Fujii T, Sumida M - Animals (Basel) (2013)

Map showing the distribution of Echinotriton andersoni in the Ryukyu Islands, and the collection sites.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4494449&req=5

animals-03-00680-f001: Map showing the distribution of Echinotriton andersoni in the Ryukyu Islands, and the collection sites.
Mentions: Anderson’s crocodile newt, Echinotriton andersoni, a species endemic to the Ryukyu Islands of southwest Japan (Figure 1), has been described as both a primitive newt and a living fossil originating from the Cenozoic Tertiary period, and is distributed in six islands of the Central Ryukyus—namely, Amami, Uke, Tokunoshima, Okinawa, Sesoko, and Tokashiki Islands [1,2]. This species was also formerly observed in Taiwan [3], where it is currently presumed to be extinct [4], although this requires careful verification [5]. Regrettably, the species has been devastated over the last several decades by illegal collection for the pet trade, predation by the Java mongoose, an invasive species known for its negative impact on native wildlife in Japan [6], and environmental degradation. E. andersoni is now listed as a class B1 endangered species [7] and is designated as a natural monument in both Okinawa and Kagoshima prefectures [8]. It is urgently necessary, therefore, to protect local populations where the number of individuals has decreased or environmental conditions have worsened to levels such that the species is unable to survive by itself and is critically endangered.

Bottom Line: Over the last five breeding seasons, eggs were laid in-cage on slopes near the waterfront.Metamorphosed newts were transferred to plastic containers containing wet sponges kept in a temperature-controlled incubator at 22.5 °C and fed a cricket diet to promote healthy growth.Our findings on the natural breeding and raising of larvae and adults are useful in breeding this endangered species and can be applied to the preservation of other similarly wild and endangered species such as E. chinhaiensis.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Institute for Amphibian Biology, Graduate School of Science, Hiroshima University, 1-3-1 Kagamiyama, Higashihiroshima 739-8526, Japan. tigawa@hiroshima-u.ac.jp.

ABSTRACT
Anderson's crocodile newt (Echinotriton andersoni) is distributed in the Central Ryukyu Islands of southern Japan, but environmental degradation and illegal collection over the last several decades have devastated the local populations. It has therefore been listed as a class B1 endangered species in the IUCN Red List, indicating that it is at high risk of extinction in the wild. The species is also protected by law in both Okinawa and Kagoshima prefectures. An artificial insemination technique using hormonal injections could not be applied to the breeding of this species in the laboratory. In this study we naturally bred the species, and tested a laboratory farming technique using several male and female E. andersoni pairs collected from Okinawa, Amami, and Tokunoshima Islands and subsequently maintained in near-biotopic breeding cages. Among 378 eggs derived from 17 females, 319 (84.4%) became normal tailbud embryos, 274 (72.5%) hatched normally, 213 (56.3%) metamorphosed normally, and 141 (37.3%) became normal two-month-old newts; in addition, 77 one- to three-year-old Tokunoshima newts and 32 Amami larvae are currently still growing normally. Over the last five breeding seasons, eggs were laid in-cage on slopes near the waterfront. Larvae were raised in nets maintained in a temperature-controlled water bath at 20 °C and fed live Tubifex. Metamorphosed newts were transferred to plastic containers containing wet sponges kept in a temperature-controlled incubator at 22.5 °C and fed a cricket diet to promote healthy growth. This is the first published report of successfully propagating an endangered species by using breeding cages in a laboratory setting for captive breeding. Our findings on the natural breeding and raising of larvae and adults are useful in breeding this endangered species and can be applied to the preservation of other similarly wild and endangered species such as E. chinhaiensis.

No MeSH data available.