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Behavior and Characteristics of Sap-Feeding North Island kākā (Nestor meridionalis septentrionalis) in Wellington, New Zealand.

Charles KE, Linklater WL - Animals (Basel) (2013)

Bottom Line: Sap feeding birds were predominantly young and, based on estimated sex, females were no more likely to sap feed than males (exact binomial test p = 0.868).Twenty of the 21 identified sap feeding kākā utilized supplementary feeding stations at Zealandia-Karori Wildlife Sanctuary.Kākā were observed defending sap feeding sites from tui (Prosthemadera novaeseelandiae) and conspecifics.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Centre for Biodiversity and Restoration Ecology, School of Biological Sciences, Victoria University of Wellington, P.O. Box 600, Wellington, New Zealand. kerryecharles@gmail.com.

ABSTRACT
The North Island kākā (Nestor meridionalis septentrionalis), a threatened New Zealand native parrot, was successfully reintroduced to an urban sanctuary in Wellington, New Zealand. Conflict has recently begun to emerge with Wellington City residents due to tree damage caused by kākā sap foraging. Little is known about sap foraging behavior of kākā, and this study aimed to gain a greater understanding of this behavior, and to test hypotheses that sap feeding is predominantly a female activity and that one technique, forming transverse gouges through bark, may be restricted to adult kākā. We used instantaneous scan sampling to record the behavior of kākā during 25 60-100 minute observation periods at Anderson Park, Wellington Botanic Garden, and during 13 opportunistic observations of sap feeding kākā in Wellington City. Forty-one observations of sap feeding were made of 21 individually-identified birds. Sap feeding birds were predominantly young and, based on estimated sex, females were no more likely to sap feed than males (exact binomial test p = 0.868). Twenty of the 21 identified sap feeding kākā utilized supplementary feeding stations at Zealandia-Karori Wildlife Sanctuary. Kākā were observed defending sap feeding sites from tui (Prosthemadera novaeseelandiae) and conspecifics. Sap appears to be an important resource for kākā across sexes and life stages, and provision of supplementary food is unlikely to reduce sap feeding and tree damage in Wellington City.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

A juvenile kākā sap feeding by forming transverse gouges through the bark of Eucalyptus leucoxylon. Anderson Park, Wellington Botanic Garden, September 2012.
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animals-03-00830-f003: A juvenile kākā sap feeding by forming transverse gouges through the bark of Eucalyptus leucoxylon. Anderson Park, Wellington Botanic Garden, September 2012.

Mentions: Two types of tree damage have been observed in Wellington; transverse gouges and removed patches of bark (Figure 2). Both adult and juvenile kākā were observed engaging in both types of bark damage and bark removal behavior differed between the two types of damage. Transverse gouges were made by using the beak to prise a deep gouge through the bark layer (Figure 3). The lower mandible was hooked under the bark and prised away from the bird, with the upper mandible held against the outer side of the bark to assist with leverage. This resulted in the bark gouge being extended away from the bird. Lapping sap and deepening or lengthening the gouge could not be distinguished as they occurred simultaneously. A sap foraging kākā would move between multiple gouges regularly during a sap feeding bout, spending between 1 second and 2.5 minutes at a single gouge (x ± SD, 45 ± 43 seconds, n = 21) before moving to another one nearby. Up to six bark gouges were utilized during a single sap feeding bout.


Behavior and Characteristics of Sap-Feeding North Island kākā (Nestor meridionalis septentrionalis) in Wellington, New Zealand.

Charles KE, Linklater WL - Animals (Basel) (2013)

A juvenile kākā sap feeding by forming transverse gouges through the bark of Eucalyptus leucoxylon. Anderson Park, Wellington Botanic Garden, September 2012.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4494445&req=5

animals-03-00830-f003: A juvenile kākā sap feeding by forming transverse gouges through the bark of Eucalyptus leucoxylon. Anderson Park, Wellington Botanic Garden, September 2012.
Mentions: Two types of tree damage have been observed in Wellington; transverse gouges and removed patches of bark (Figure 2). Both adult and juvenile kākā were observed engaging in both types of bark damage and bark removal behavior differed between the two types of damage. Transverse gouges were made by using the beak to prise a deep gouge through the bark layer (Figure 3). The lower mandible was hooked under the bark and prised away from the bird, with the upper mandible held against the outer side of the bark to assist with leverage. This resulted in the bark gouge being extended away from the bird. Lapping sap and deepening or lengthening the gouge could not be distinguished as they occurred simultaneously. A sap foraging kākā would move between multiple gouges regularly during a sap feeding bout, spending between 1 second and 2.5 minutes at a single gouge (x ± SD, 45 ± 43 seconds, n = 21) before moving to another one nearby. Up to six bark gouges were utilized during a single sap feeding bout.

Bottom Line: Sap feeding birds were predominantly young and, based on estimated sex, females were no more likely to sap feed than males (exact binomial test p = 0.868).Twenty of the 21 identified sap feeding kākā utilized supplementary feeding stations at Zealandia-Karori Wildlife Sanctuary.Kākā were observed defending sap feeding sites from tui (Prosthemadera novaeseelandiae) and conspecifics.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Centre for Biodiversity and Restoration Ecology, School of Biological Sciences, Victoria University of Wellington, P.O. Box 600, Wellington, New Zealand. kerryecharles@gmail.com.

ABSTRACT
The North Island kākā (Nestor meridionalis septentrionalis), a threatened New Zealand native parrot, was successfully reintroduced to an urban sanctuary in Wellington, New Zealand. Conflict has recently begun to emerge with Wellington City residents due to tree damage caused by kākā sap foraging. Little is known about sap foraging behavior of kākā, and this study aimed to gain a greater understanding of this behavior, and to test hypotheses that sap feeding is predominantly a female activity and that one technique, forming transverse gouges through bark, may be restricted to adult kākā. We used instantaneous scan sampling to record the behavior of kākā during 25 60-100 minute observation periods at Anderson Park, Wellington Botanic Garden, and during 13 opportunistic observations of sap feeding kākā in Wellington City. Forty-one observations of sap feeding were made of 21 individually-identified birds. Sap feeding birds were predominantly young and, based on estimated sex, females were no more likely to sap feed than males (exact binomial test p = 0.868). Twenty of the 21 identified sap feeding kākā utilized supplementary feeding stations at Zealandia-Karori Wildlife Sanctuary. Kākā were observed defending sap feeding sites from tui (Prosthemadera novaeseelandiae) and conspecifics. Sap appears to be an important resource for kākā across sexes and life stages, and provision of supplementary food is unlikely to reduce sap feeding and tree damage in Wellington City.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus