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Behavior and Characteristics of Sap-Feeding North Island kākā (Nestor meridionalis septentrionalis) in Wellington, New Zealand.

Charles KE, Linklater WL - Animals (Basel) (2013)

Bottom Line: Sap feeding birds were predominantly young and, based on estimated sex, females were no more likely to sap feed than males (exact binomial test p = 0.868).Twenty of the 21 identified sap feeding kākā utilized supplementary feeding stations at Zealandia-Karori Wildlife Sanctuary.Kākā were observed defending sap feeding sites from tui (Prosthemadera novaeseelandiae) and conspecifics.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Centre for Biodiversity and Restoration Ecology, School of Biological Sciences, Victoria University of Wellington, P.O. Box 600, Wellington, New Zealand. kerryecharles@gmail.com.

ABSTRACT
The North Island kākā (Nestor meridionalis septentrionalis), a threatened New Zealand native parrot, was successfully reintroduced to an urban sanctuary in Wellington, New Zealand. Conflict has recently begun to emerge with Wellington City residents due to tree damage caused by kākā sap foraging. Little is known about sap foraging behavior of kākā, and this study aimed to gain a greater understanding of this behavior, and to test hypotheses that sap feeding is predominantly a female activity and that one technique, forming transverse gouges through bark, may be restricted to adult kākā. We used instantaneous scan sampling to record the behavior of kākā during 25 60-100 minute observation periods at Anderson Park, Wellington Botanic Garden, and during 13 opportunistic observations of sap feeding kākā in Wellington City. Forty-one observations of sap feeding were made of 21 individually-identified birds. Sap feeding birds were predominantly young and, based on estimated sex, females were no more likely to sap feed than males (exact binomial test p = 0.868). Twenty of the 21 identified sap feeding kākā utilized supplementary feeding stations at Zealandia-Karori Wildlife Sanctuary. Kākā were observed defending sap feeding sites from tui (Prosthemadera novaeseelandiae) and conspecifics. Sap appears to be an important resource for kākā across sexes and life stages, and provision of supplementary food is unlikely to reduce sap feeding and tree damage in Wellington City.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Locations of the six sites in Wellington City where kākā were observed sap feeding between November 2011 and May 2013, showing the number of times sap feeding was observed at the site.
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animals-03-00830-f001: Locations of the six sites in Wellington City where kākā were observed sap feeding between November 2011 and May 2013, showing the number of times sap feeding was observed at the site.

Mentions: Observations of kākā engaged in sap feeding were made during systematic behavioral sampling in the Anderson Park area of the Wellington Botanic Garden (−41.279°S, 174.770°E), and opportunistically on public and private property throughout Wellington between November 2011 and May 2013 (Figure 1).


Behavior and Characteristics of Sap-Feeding North Island kākā (Nestor meridionalis septentrionalis) in Wellington, New Zealand.

Charles KE, Linklater WL - Animals (Basel) (2013)

Locations of the six sites in Wellington City where kākā were observed sap feeding between November 2011 and May 2013, showing the number of times sap feeding was observed at the site.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4494445&req=5

animals-03-00830-f001: Locations of the six sites in Wellington City where kākā were observed sap feeding between November 2011 and May 2013, showing the number of times sap feeding was observed at the site.
Mentions: Observations of kākā engaged in sap feeding were made during systematic behavioral sampling in the Anderson Park area of the Wellington Botanic Garden (−41.279°S, 174.770°E), and opportunistically on public and private property throughout Wellington between November 2011 and May 2013 (Figure 1).

Bottom Line: Sap feeding birds were predominantly young and, based on estimated sex, females were no more likely to sap feed than males (exact binomial test p = 0.868).Twenty of the 21 identified sap feeding kākā utilized supplementary feeding stations at Zealandia-Karori Wildlife Sanctuary.Kākā were observed defending sap feeding sites from tui (Prosthemadera novaeseelandiae) and conspecifics.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Centre for Biodiversity and Restoration Ecology, School of Biological Sciences, Victoria University of Wellington, P.O. Box 600, Wellington, New Zealand. kerryecharles@gmail.com.

ABSTRACT
The North Island kākā (Nestor meridionalis septentrionalis), a threatened New Zealand native parrot, was successfully reintroduced to an urban sanctuary in Wellington, New Zealand. Conflict has recently begun to emerge with Wellington City residents due to tree damage caused by kākā sap foraging. Little is known about sap foraging behavior of kākā, and this study aimed to gain a greater understanding of this behavior, and to test hypotheses that sap feeding is predominantly a female activity and that one technique, forming transverse gouges through bark, may be restricted to adult kākā. We used instantaneous scan sampling to record the behavior of kākā during 25 60-100 minute observation periods at Anderson Park, Wellington Botanic Garden, and during 13 opportunistic observations of sap feeding kākā in Wellington City. Forty-one observations of sap feeding were made of 21 individually-identified birds. Sap feeding birds were predominantly young and, based on estimated sex, females were no more likely to sap feed than males (exact binomial test p = 0.868). Twenty of the 21 identified sap feeding kākā utilized supplementary feeding stations at Zealandia-Karori Wildlife Sanctuary. Kākā were observed defending sap feeding sites from tui (Prosthemadera novaeseelandiae) and conspecifics. Sap appears to be an important resource for kākā across sexes and life stages, and provision of supplementary food is unlikely to reduce sap feeding and tree damage in Wellington City.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus