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Biological Anomalies around the 2009 L'Aquila Earthquake.

Fidani C - Animals (Basel) (2013)

Bottom Line: Around the time of the seismic swarm many instruments were operating in Central Italy, even if not dedicated to biological effects associated with the stress field variations, including seismicity.Data on animal behavior, before, during and after the main shocks, were analyzed in space/time distributions with respect to the epicenter area, evidencing the specific responses of different animals.Several instances of strange animal behavior were observed which could causally support the hypotheses that they were induced by the physical presence of gas, electric charges and electromagnetic waves in atmosphere.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Central Italy Electromagnetic Network, 63847 San Procolo, Fermo, Italy. c.fidani@virgilio.it.

ABSTRACT
The April 6, 2009 L'Aquila earthquake was the strongest seismic event to occur in Italy over the last thirty years with a magnitude of M = 6.3. Around the time of the seismic swarm many instruments were operating in Central Italy, even if not dedicated to biological effects associated with the stress field variations, including seismicity. Testimonies were collected using a specific questionnaire immediately after the main shock, including data on earthquake lights, gas leaks, human diseases, and irregular animal behavior. The questionnaire was made up of a sequence of arguments, based upon past historical earthquake observations and compiled over seven months after the main shock. Data on animal behavior, before, during and after the main shocks, were analyzed in space/time distributions with respect to the epicenter area, evidencing the specific responses of different animals. Several instances of strange animal behavior were observed which could causally support the hypotheses that they were induced by the physical presence of gas, electric charges and electromagnetic waves in atmosphere. The aim of this study was to order the biological observations and thereby allow future work to determine whether these observations were influenced by geophysical parameters.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

The earthworm farm at the San Francesco Primary School in Santa Vittoria in Matenano, Fermo; courtesy of Silvana Picchioni.
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animals-03-00693-f002: The earthworm farm at the San Francesco Primary School in Santa Vittoria in Matenano, Fermo; courtesy of Silvana Picchioni.

Mentions: Before the quake, regular observations had been made at the San Francesco Primary School in the city of Santa Vittoria in Matenano, about 70 km north of L’Aquila [34], by a local teacher named Silvana Picchioni and students for a class project. This was during the academic year 2008/2009. Earthworms were kept in a semi-transparent worm farm. On the morning of April 6, at 7:50 am, a janitor entered the classroom and found the earthworms on the floor. The transparent warm box was not overturned. The janitor had visited the same classroom two days before in the afternoon and had not seen earthworms on the floor. The teacher had been keeping earthworms in an open-top box on a table for the past ten years and she reported that over these years, such an event had never happened. A photo of the box used for the experiment is shown in Figure 2. The box was constructed of two thin wood walls and two transparent plexiglass walls. The bottom of this box was made of thin wood. The box was filled with three different strata of soil: sand, peat and normal soil. Fresh earthworms were placed on the soil every September and were taken back to the wild in June every year. Up until March 17, 2009, there had been only one earthworm in the container, at this time 23 additional earthworms were placed inside the box. The soil was regularly watered every 20 days. The last time it had been watered was on March 17, 2009. The only available exit was the open face top of the box. The two transparent plexiglass walls were covered with black plastic. A total of eight earthworms were found dead. They had signs of rigor mortis. Three of these were found under a classroom window, two between the window and the table, which was positioned 5 meters away against the opposite wall. Two other earthworms were found under the same table and one was found still in the box on the table. It was reported that the classroom was usually cold during the winter months. The only radiator in this classroom was positioned under the window. The teacher referred that students were allowed to approach and touch the table. This produced many shocks, but earthworms had never tried to escape because of this.


Biological Anomalies around the 2009 L'Aquila Earthquake.

Fidani C - Animals (Basel) (2013)

The earthworm farm at the San Francesco Primary School in Santa Vittoria in Matenano, Fermo; courtesy of Silvana Picchioni.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4494442&req=5

animals-03-00693-f002: The earthworm farm at the San Francesco Primary School in Santa Vittoria in Matenano, Fermo; courtesy of Silvana Picchioni.
Mentions: Before the quake, regular observations had been made at the San Francesco Primary School in the city of Santa Vittoria in Matenano, about 70 km north of L’Aquila [34], by a local teacher named Silvana Picchioni and students for a class project. This was during the academic year 2008/2009. Earthworms were kept in a semi-transparent worm farm. On the morning of April 6, at 7:50 am, a janitor entered the classroom and found the earthworms on the floor. The transparent warm box was not overturned. The janitor had visited the same classroom two days before in the afternoon and had not seen earthworms on the floor. The teacher had been keeping earthworms in an open-top box on a table for the past ten years and she reported that over these years, such an event had never happened. A photo of the box used for the experiment is shown in Figure 2. The box was constructed of two thin wood walls and two transparent plexiglass walls. The bottom of this box was made of thin wood. The box was filled with three different strata of soil: sand, peat and normal soil. Fresh earthworms were placed on the soil every September and were taken back to the wild in June every year. Up until March 17, 2009, there had been only one earthworm in the container, at this time 23 additional earthworms were placed inside the box. The soil was regularly watered every 20 days. The last time it had been watered was on March 17, 2009. The only available exit was the open face top of the box. The two transparent plexiglass walls were covered with black plastic. A total of eight earthworms were found dead. They had signs of rigor mortis. Three of these were found under a classroom window, two between the window and the table, which was positioned 5 meters away against the opposite wall. Two other earthworms were found under the same table and one was found still in the box on the table. It was reported that the classroom was usually cold during the winter months. The only radiator in this classroom was positioned under the window. The teacher referred that students were allowed to approach and touch the table. This produced many shocks, but earthworms had never tried to escape because of this.

Bottom Line: Around the time of the seismic swarm many instruments were operating in Central Italy, even if not dedicated to biological effects associated with the stress field variations, including seismicity.Data on animal behavior, before, during and after the main shocks, were analyzed in space/time distributions with respect to the epicenter area, evidencing the specific responses of different animals.Several instances of strange animal behavior were observed which could causally support the hypotheses that they were induced by the physical presence of gas, electric charges and electromagnetic waves in atmosphere.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Central Italy Electromagnetic Network, 63847 San Procolo, Fermo, Italy. c.fidani@virgilio.it.

ABSTRACT
The April 6, 2009 L'Aquila earthquake was the strongest seismic event to occur in Italy over the last thirty years with a magnitude of M = 6.3. Around the time of the seismic swarm many instruments were operating in Central Italy, even if not dedicated to biological effects associated with the stress field variations, including seismicity. Testimonies were collected using a specific questionnaire immediately after the main shock, including data on earthquake lights, gas leaks, human diseases, and irregular animal behavior. The questionnaire was made up of a sequence of arguments, based upon past historical earthquake observations and compiled over seven months after the main shock. Data on animal behavior, before, during and after the main shocks, were analyzed in space/time distributions with respect to the epicenter area, evidencing the specific responses of different animals. Several instances of strange animal behavior were observed which could causally support the hypotheses that they were induced by the physical presence of gas, electric charges and electromagnetic waves in atmosphere. The aim of this study was to order the biological observations and thereby allow future work to determine whether these observations were influenced by geophysical parameters.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus