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Effect of Season, Transport Length, Deck Location, and Lairage Length on Pork Quality and Blood Cortisol Concentrations of Market Hogs.

Newman D, Young J, Carr C, Ryan M, Berg E - Animals (Basel) (2014)

Bottom Line: Season and deck did not have a main effect on cortisol concentrations or pork quality.Hogs transported 6 h had increased cortisol concentrations (103.0 vs. 95.5 ng/mL; P < 0.001) and decreased L* (52.49 vs. 52.69; P = 0.09), b* (6.28 vs. 6.36; P = 0.03), and hue angle (20.70 vs. 20.95; P = 0.03) compared to hogs transported 3 h.Hogs subjected to 6 h of lairage had increased 24-h pH (5.69 vs. 5.66; P = 0.005), a* (16.64 vs. 16.48; P < 0.0001), b* (6.42 vs. 6.22; P < 0.0001), saturation (17.85 vs. 17.64; P < 0.0001), and hue angle (21.01 vs. 20.65; P = 0.002) and decreased L* (52.49 vs. 52.69; P = 0.07) when compared to hogs subjected to 3 h of lairage.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Animal Sciences, North Dakota State University, Fargo, ND 58108, USA. david.newman@ndsu.edu.

ABSTRACT
The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of seasonal environment, transport conditions, and time in lairage on pork quality and serum cortisol concentrations. Market hogs were slaughtered during winter (n = 535), spring (n = 645), summer (n = 644), and fall (n = 488). Within season, hogs were randomly assigned to treatments in a 2 × 2 × 2 factorial arrangement, with 2 deck locations (top vs. bottom) and 2 transport and lairage durations (3 h vs. 6 h). Blood samples were collected at exsanguination for analysis of cortisol concentration. Loins were collected at 24 h postmortem for pork quality assessment. Season and deck did not have a main effect on cortisol concentrations or pork quality. Hogs transported 6 h had increased cortisol concentrations (103.0 vs. 95.5 ng/mL; P < 0.001) and decreased L* (52.49 vs. 52.69; P = 0.09), b* (6.28 vs. 6.36; P = 0.03), and hue angle (20.70 vs. 20.95; P = 0.03) compared to hogs transported 3 h. Hogs subjected to 6 h of lairage had increased 24-h pH (5.69 vs. 5.66; P = 0.005), a* (16.64 vs. 16.48; P < 0.0001), b* (6.42 vs. 6.22; P < 0.0001), saturation (17.85 vs. 17.64; P < 0.0001), and hue angle (21.01 vs. 20.65; P = 0.002) and decreased L* (52.49 vs. 52.69; P = 0.07) when compared to hogs subjected to 3 h of lairage.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Minolta a* by lairage (P < 0.0001) and by season × lairage duration (P < 0.0001). Values with different letters differ by P < 0.05.
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animals-04-00627-f008: Minolta a* by lairage (P < 0.0001) and by season × lairage duration (P < 0.0001). Values with different letters differ by P < 0.05.

Mentions: There was a season by transport duration interaction (P = 0.0005) for L* (Figure 7). The LM of hogs transported for 3 h during the winter tended to be lighter than hogs transported for 6 h (53.74 vs. 53.08; P = 0.08). Brewer et al. [10] reported that consumers evaluating lightness (L*) values of fresh pork were unable to discern differences in L* values less than 3 units, and, considering statistical differences in L* observed in this study were less than 3 units, results of this study would suggest that there is no observable difference in L* when comparing different transport durations for each season. Lairage duration affected Minolta a*, with hogs lairaged for 3 h having less red pork than hogs lairaged for 6 h (16.48 vs. 16.64; P < 0.0001; Figure 8a). The difference in a* between hogs lairaged for 3 h and 6 h was driven by hogs marketed in the summer (16.55 vs. 16.95; P < 0.0001) because there was no significant difference in a* in the winter, spring, and fall (P > 0.25). Minolta b* followed the same pattern as a* with hogs lairaged for 6 h in the summer having a greater b* than hogs lairaged for 3 h in the summer (6.55 vs. 5.82; P < 0.0001) while there was no significant difference in b* between lairage times in the other seasons (P > 0.85; Figure 9a). Season and transport duration had a significant interaction effect on b* (P = 0.009) although all season by transport duration combinations were not significantly different from each other (P > 0.2; Figure 9b). Lairage duration had the same effect on C* as on a* and b* with hogs being lairaged for 3 h in the summer having a lower C* than hogs lairaged for 6 h in the summer (17.57 vs. 18.20; P < 0.0001) while lairage duration did not have a significant effect on C* in the winter, spring, or fall (P > 0.15; Figure 10). Hue angle was also lower for hogs lairaged for 3 h in the summer than those lairaged for 6 h in the summer (19.33 vs. 20.91; P < 0.0001); however, unlike a*, b*, and C*, hogs marketed in the winter, regardless of lairage duration, had a greater hue angle than hogs lairaged for 3 h in the spring (P = 0.04) and a tendency for a greater hue angle than hogs lairaged for 6 h in the spring (P = 0.07; Figure 11a). Hogs marketed in the spring, regardless of transport duration, had a lower hue angle than hogs transported for 3 h (P < 0.05) or for 6 h (P < 0.1) in the winter (Figure 11b). While differences in color traits were significant, due to the small differences, it is unlikely that the untrained consumer would notice a difference in color of pork as a result of different transport and lairage durations.


Effect of Season, Transport Length, Deck Location, and Lairage Length on Pork Quality and Blood Cortisol Concentrations of Market Hogs.

Newman D, Young J, Carr C, Ryan M, Berg E - Animals (Basel) (2014)

Minolta a* by lairage (P < 0.0001) and by season × lairage duration (P < 0.0001). Values with different letters differ by P < 0.05.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4494428&req=5

animals-04-00627-f008: Minolta a* by lairage (P < 0.0001) and by season × lairage duration (P < 0.0001). Values with different letters differ by P < 0.05.
Mentions: There was a season by transport duration interaction (P = 0.0005) for L* (Figure 7). The LM of hogs transported for 3 h during the winter tended to be lighter than hogs transported for 6 h (53.74 vs. 53.08; P = 0.08). Brewer et al. [10] reported that consumers evaluating lightness (L*) values of fresh pork were unable to discern differences in L* values less than 3 units, and, considering statistical differences in L* observed in this study were less than 3 units, results of this study would suggest that there is no observable difference in L* when comparing different transport durations for each season. Lairage duration affected Minolta a*, with hogs lairaged for 3 h having less red pork than hogs lairaged for 6 h (16.48 vs. 16.64; P < 0.0001; Figure 8a). The difference in a* between hogs lairaged for 3 h and 6 h was driven by hogs marketed in the summer (16.55 vs. 16.95; P < 0.0001) because there was no significant difference in a* in the winter, spring, and fall (P > 0.25). Minolta b* followed the same pattern as a* with hogs lairaged for 6 h in the summer having a greater b* than hogs lairaged for 3 h in the summer (6.55 vs. 5.82; P < 0.0001) while there was no significant difference in b* between lairage times in the other seasons (P > 0.85; Figure 9a). Season and transport duration had a significant interaction effect on b* (P = 0.009) although all season by transport duration combinations were not significantly different from each other (P > 0.2; Figure 9b). Lairage duration had the same effect on C* as on a* and b* with hogs being lairaged for 3 h in the summer having a lower C* than hogs lairaged for 6 h in the summer (17.57 vs. 18.20; P < 0.0001) while lairage duration did not have a significant effect on C* in the winter, spring, or fall (P > 0.15; Figure 10). Hue angle was also lower for hogs lairaged for 3 h in the summer than those lairaged for 6 h in the summer (19.33 vs. 20.91; P < 0.0001); however, unlike a*, b*, and C*, hogs marketed in the winter, regardless of lairage duration, had a greater hue angle than hogs lairaged for 3 h in the spring (P = 0.04) and a tendency for a greater hue angle than hogs lairaged for 6 h in the spring (P = 0.07; Figure 11a). Hogs marketed in the spring, regardless of transport duration, had a lower hue angle than hogs transported for 3 h (P < 0.05) or for 6 h (P < 0.1) in the winter (Figure 11b). While differences in color traits were significant, due to the small differences, it is unlikely that the untrained consumer would notice a difference in color of pork as a result of different transport and lairage durations.

Bottom Line: Season and deck did not have a main effect on cortisol concentrations or pork quality.Hogs transported 6 h had increased cortisol concentrations (103.0 vs. 95.5 ng/mL; P < 0.001) and decreased L* (52.49 vs. 52.69; P = 0.09), b* (6.28 vs. 6.36; P = 0.03), and hue angle (20.70 vs. 20.95; P = 0.03) compared to hogs transported 3 h.Hogs subjected to 6 h of lairage had increased 24-h pH (5.69 vs. 5.66; P = 0.005), a* (16.64 vs. 16.48; P < 0.0001), b* (6.42 vs. 6.22; P < 0.0001), saturation (17.85 vs. 17.64; P < 0.0001), and hue angle (21.01 vs. 20.65; P = 0.002) and decreased L* (52.49 vs. 52.69; P = 0.07) when compared to hogs subjected to 3 h of lairage.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Animal Sciences, North Dakota State University, Fargo, ND 58108, USA. david.newman@ndsu.edu.

ABSTRACT
The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of seasonal environment, transport conditions, and time in lairage on pork quality and serum cortisol concentrations. Market hogs were slaughtered during winter (n = 535), spring (n = 645), summer (n = 644), and fall (n = 488). Within season, hogs were randomly assigned to treatments in a 2 × 2 × 2 factorial arrangement, with 2 deck locations (top vs. bottom) and 2 transport and lairage durations (3 h vs. 6 h). Blood samples were collected at exsanguination for analysis of cortisol concentration. Loins were collected at 24 h postmortem for pork quality assessment. Season and deck did not have a main effect on cortisol concentrations or pork quality. Hogs transported 6 h had increased cortisol concentrations (103.0 vs. 95.5 ng/mL; P < 0.001) and decreased L* (52.49 vs. 52.69; P = 0.09), b* (6.28 vs. 6.36; P = 0.03), and hue angle (20.70 vs. 20.95; P = 0.03) compared to hogs transported 3 h. Hogs subjected to 6 h of lairage had increased 24-h pH (5.69 vs. 5.66; P = 0.005), a* (16.64 vs. 16.48; P < 0.0001), b* (6.42 vs. 6.22; P < 0.0001), saturation (17.85 vs. 17.64; P < 0.0001), and hue angle (21.01 vs. 20.65; P = 0.002) and decreased L* (52.49 vs. 52.69; P = 0.07) when compared to hogs subjected to 3 h of lairage.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus