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Effect of Season, Transport Length, Deck Location, and Lairage Length on Pork Quality and Blood Cortisol Concentrations of Market Hogs.

Newman D, Young J, Carr C, Ryan M, Berg E - Animals (Basel) (2014)

Bottom Line: Season and deck did not have a main effect on cortisol concentrations or pork quality.Hogs transported 6 h had increased cortisol concentrations (103.0 vs. 95.5 ng/mL; P < 0.001) and decreased L* (52.49 vs. 52.69; P = 0.09), b* (6.28 vs. 6.36; P = 0.03), and hue angle (20.70 vs. 20.95; P = 0.03) compared to hogs transported 3 h.Hogs subjected to 6 h of lairage had increased 24-h pH (5.69 vs. 5.66; P = 0.005), a* (16.64 vs. 16.48; P < 0.0001), b* (6.42 vs. 6.22; P < 0.0001), saturation (17.85 vs. 17.64; P < 0.0001), and hue angle (21.01 vs. 20.65; P = 0.002) and decreased L* (52.49 vs. 52.69; P = 0.07) when compared to hogs subjected to 3 h of lairage.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Animal Sciences, North Dakota State University, Fargo, ND 58108, USA. david.newman@ndsu.edu.

ABSTRACT
The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of seasonal environment, transport conditions, and time in lairage on pork quality and serum cortisol concentrations. Market hogs were slaughtered during winter (n = 535), spring (n = 645), summer (n = 644), and fall (n = 488). Within season, hogs were randomly assigned to treatments in a 2 × 2 × 2 factorial arrangement, with 2 deck locations (top vs. bottom) and 2 transport and lairage durations (3 h vs. 6 h). Blood samples were collected at exsanguination for analysis of cortisol concentration. Loins were collected at 24 h postmortem for pork quality assessment. Season and deck did not have a main effect on cortisol concentrations or pork quality. Hogs transported 6 h had increased cortisol concentrations (103.0 vs. 95.5 ng/mL; P < 0.001) and decreased L* (52.49 vs. 52.69; P = 0.09), b* (6.28 vs. 6.36; P = 0.03), and hue angle (20.70 vs. 20.95; P = 0.03) compared to hogs transported 3 h. Hogs subjected to 6 h of lairage had increased 24-h pH (5.69 vs. 5.66; P = 0.005), a* (16.64 vs. 16.48; P < 0.0001), b* (6.42 vs. 6.22; P < 0.0001), saturation (17.85 vs. 17.64; P < 0.0001), and hue angle (21.01 vs. 20.65; P = 0.002) and decreased L* (52.49 vs. 52.69; P = 0.07) when compared to hogs subjected to 3 h of lairage.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Drip loss percentage (a) by season × deck location (P = 0.0002) and (b) by season × transport duration (P = 0.0003). Values with different letters differ by P < 0.05.
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animals-04-00627-f006: Drip loss percentage (a) by season × deck location (P = 0.0002) and (b) by season × transport duration (P = 0.0003). Values with different letters differ by P < 0.05.

Mentions: There were no significant main effects (P > 0.15) for 24-h drip loss percentage; however, two 2-way interactions, season by deck location (P < 0.001; Figure 6a) and season by transport duration (P < 0.001; Figure 6b), were observed for drip loss percentage. Drip loss percentages were similar in spring and summer between hogs transported in the bottom vs. top decks (P > 0.6). Hogs transported in the top deck during the fall tended to have greater drip loss percentages than those transported in the bottom deck (2.89 vs. 2.31%; P = 0.05) while the opposite held true in the winter with hogs transported in the bottom deck having the greater drip loss percentages when compared to hogs transported in the top deck (3.28 vs. 2.76%; P = 0.07). The LM from hogs transported 3 h had lower drip loss percentages than the LM from hogs transported 6 h in the spring (2.84 vs. 3.51%; P < 0.001); however, drip loss percentages were not different in the winter, summer, and fall between pigs transported for 3 h vs. 6 h (P > 0.7). These interactive effects with season are very difficult to explain. Previous research has shown an increase in DFD pork during the winter months, most likely due to chronic stress (shivering to maintain body temperature) which prevents sufficient lactic acid from reaching the muscles [22]. However, our study showed no difference in drip loss in winter compared to other seasons (P > 0.20).


Effect of Season, Transport Length, Deck Location, and Lairage Length on Pork Quality and Blood Cortisol Concentrations of Market Hogs.

Newman D, Young J, Carr C, Ryan M, Berg E - Animals (Basel) (2014)

Drip loss percentage (a) by season × deck location (P = 0.0002) and (b) by season × transport duration (P = 0.0003). Values with different letters differ by P < 0.05.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

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getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4494428&req=5

animals-04-00627-f006: Drip loss percentage (a) by season × deck location (P = 0.0002) and (b) by season × transport duration (P = 0.0003). Values with different letters differ by P < 0.05.
Mentions: There were no significant main effects (P > 0.15) for 24-h drip loss percentage; however, two 2-way interactions, season by deck location (P < 0.001; Figure 6a) and season by transport duration (P < 0.001; Figure 6b), were observed for drip loss percentage. Drip loss percentages were similar in spring and summer between hogs transported in the bottom vs. top decks (P > 0.6). Hogs transported in the top deck during the fall tended to have greater drip loss percentages than those transported in the bottom deck (2.89 vs. 2.31%; P = 0.05) while the opposite held true in the winter with hogs transported in the bottom deck having the greater drip loss percentages when compared to hogs transported in the top deck (3.28 vs. 2.76%; P = 0.07). The LM from hogs transported 3 h had lower drip loss percentages than the LM from hogs transported 6 h in the spring (2.84 vs. 3.51%; P < 0.001); however, drip loss percentages were not different in the winter, summer, and fall between pigs transported for 3 h vs. 6 h (P > 0.7). These interactive effects with season are very difficult to explain. Previous research has shown an increase in DFD pork during the winter months, most likely due to chronic stress (shivering to maintain body temperature) which prevents sufficient lactic acid from reaching the muscles [22]. However, our study showed no difference in drip loss in winter compared to other seasons (P > 0.20).

Bottom Line: Season and deck did not have a main effect on cortisol concentrations or pork quality.Hogs transported 6 h had increased cortisol concentrations (103.0 vs. 95.5 ng/mL; P < 0.001) and decreased L* (52.49 vs. 52.69; P = 0.09), b* (6.28 vs. 6.36; P = 0.03), and hue angle (20.70 vs. 20.95; P = 0.03) compared to hogs transported 3 h.Hogs subjected to 6 h of lairage had increased 24-h pH (5.69 vs. 5.66; P = 0.005), a* (16.64 vs. 16.48; P < 0.0001), b* (6.42 vs. 6.22; P < 0.0001), saturation (17.85 vs. 17.64; P < 0.0001), and hue angle (21.01 vs. 20.65; P = 0.002) and decreased L* (52.49 vs. 52.69; P = 0.07) when compared to hogs subjected to 3 h of lairage.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Animal Sciences, North Dakota State University, Fargo, ND 58108, USA. david.newman@ndsu.edu.

ABSTRACT
The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of seasonal environment, transport conditions, and time in lairage on pork quality and serum cortisol concentrations. Market hogs were slaughtered during winter (n = 535), spring (n = 645), summer (n = 644), and fall (n = 488). Within season, hogs were randomly assigned to treatments in a 2 × 2 × 2 factorial arrangement, with 2 deck locations (top vs. bottom) and 2 transport and lairage durations (3 h vs. 6 h). Blood samples were collected at exsanguination for analysis of cortisol concentration. Loins were collected at 24 h postmortem for pork quality assessment. Season and deck did not have a main effect on cortisol concentrations or pork quality. Hogs transported 6 h had increased cortisol concentrations (103.0 vs. 95.5 ng/mL; P < 0.001) and decreased L* (52.49 vs. 52.69; P = 0.09), b* (6.28 vs. 6.36; P = 0.03), and hue angle (20.70 vs. 20.95; P = 0.03) compared to hogs transported 3 h. Hogs subjected to 6 h of lairage had increased 24-h pH (5.69 vs. 5.66; P = 0.005), a* (16.64 vs. 16.48; P < 0.0001), b* (6.42 vs. 6.22; P < 0.0001), saturation (17.85 vs. 17.64; P < 0.0001), and hue angle (21.01 vs. 20.65; P = 0.002) and decreased L* (52.49 vs. 52.69; P = 0.07) when compared to hogs subjected to 3 h of lairage.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus