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Effect of Season, Transport Length, Deck Location, and Lairage Length on Pork Quality and Blood Cortisol Concentrations of Market Hogs.

Newman D, Young J, Carr C, Ryan M, Berg E - Animals (Basel) (2014)

Bottom Line: Season and deck did not have a main effect on cortisol concentrations or pork quality.Hogs transported 6 h had increased cortisol concentrations (103.0 vs. 95.5 ng/mL; P < 0.001) and decreased L* (52.49 vs. 52.69; P = 0.09), b* (6.28 vs. 6.36; P = 0.03), and hue angle (20.70 vs. 20.95; P = 0.03) compared to hogs transported 3 h.Hogs subjected to 6 h of lairage had increased 24-h pH (5.69 vs. 5.66; P = 0.005), a* (16.64 vs. 16.48; P < 0.0001), b* (6.42 vs. 6.22; P < 0.0001), saturation (17.85 vs. 17.64; P < 0.0001), and hue angle (21.01 vs. 20.65; P = 0.002) and decreased L* (52.49 vs. 52.69; P = 0.07) when compared to hogs subjected to 3 h of lairage.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Animal Sciences, North Dakota State University, Fargo, ND 58108, USA. david.newman@ndsu.edu.

ABSTRACT
The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of seasonal environment, transport conditions, and time in lairage on pork quality and serum cortisol concentrations. Market hogs were slaughtered during winter (n = 535), spring (n = 645), summer (n = 644), and fall (n = 488). Within season, hogs were randomly assigned to treatments in a 2 × 2 × 2 factorial arrangement, with 2 deck locations (top vs. bottom) and 2 transport and lairage durations (3 h vs. 6 h). Blood samples were collected at exsanguination for analysis of cortisol concentration. Loins were collected at 24 h postmortem for pork quality assessment. Season and deck did not have a main effect on cortisol concentrations or pork quality. Hogs transported 6 h had increased cortisol concentrations (103.0 vs. 95.5 ng/mL; P < 0.001) and decreased L* (52.49 vs. 52.69; P = 0.09), b* (6.28 vs. 6.36; P = 0.03), and hue angle (20.70 vs. 20.95; P = 0.03) compared to hogs transported 3 h. Hogs subjected to 6 h of lairage had increased 24-h pH (5.69 vs. 5.66; P = 0.005), a* (16.64 vs. 16.48; P < 0.0001), b* (6.42 vs. 6.22; P < 0.0001), saturation (17.85 vs. 17.64; P < 0.0001), and hue angle (21.01 vs. 20.65; P = 0.002) and decreased L* (52.49 vs. 52.69; P = 0.07) when compared to hogs subjected to 3 h of lairage.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Serum cortisol concentrations (a) by transport duration (P = 0.0005) and by transport duration × lairage duration (P = 0.02); (b) by season × lairage duration (P < 0.0001); and (c) by season × transport duration × deck location (P = 0.02). Values with differing letters differ by P < 0.05.
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animals-04-00627-f004: Serum cortisol concentrations (a) by transport duration (P = 0.0005) and by transport duration × lairage duration (P = 0.02); (b) by season × lairage duration (P < 0.0001); and (c) by season × transport duration × deck location (P = 0.02). Values with differing letters differ by P < 0.05.

Mentions: Cortisol remains active in the body longer than either epinephrine or norepinephrine [13] and is generally regarded as an indicator of the psychological state of an animal, as well as an index of its physiological reaction to environmental conditions and welfare situation [14]. Therefore, measurement of circulating cortisol concentration is common in research which evaluates pre-slaughter stress. Main effects of season, deck location, and lairage duration were not significant for serum cortisol concentration (P > 0.28). Transport duration had a significant (P < 0.001) effect on serum cortisol concentration with hogs being transported for 6 h having a greater serum cortisol concentration than hogs transported for only 3 h (103.0 vs. 95.5 ng/mL; Figure 4a). This was driven by the greater serum cortisol concentration in pigs transported for 3 h compared to pigs transported 6 h when lairaged for 3 h (93.0 vs. 105.4 ng/mL; P < 0.001) while pigs lairaged for 6 h had similar serum cortisol concentrations regardless of transport duration (97.9 vs. 100.5 ng/mL; P = 0.84). Hogs subjected to 3 h of lairage had greater serum cortisol concentrations than hogs subjected to 6 h of lairage in the winter, spring, and fall; however, this was only significant in the fall (P < 0.0001; Figure 4b). In the summer, the opposite was true with hogs subjected to 6 h of lairage having greater serum cortisol concentrations than hogs subjected to 3 h of lairage (122.9 vs. 79.7 ng/mL; P < 0.0001). With the exception of hogs transported on the top deck in the summer, hogs transported for 6 h had greater serum cortisol concentrations than hogs transported for 3 h, although this was only significant (P = 0.02) for hogs transported on the bottom deck during the summer (Figure 4c). Although not significant (P > 0.1), hogs transported for 3 h in the summer on the top deck had greater serum cortisol concentrations than hogs transported for 6 h (102.6 vs. 96.7 ng/mL).


Effect of Season, Transport Length, Deck Location, and Lairage Length on Pork Quality and Blood Cortisol Concentrations of Market Hogs.

Newman D, Young J, Carr C, Ryan M, Berg E - Animals (Basel) (2014)

Serum cortisol concentrations (a) by transport duration (P = 0.0005) and by transport duration × lairage duration (P = 0.02); (b) by season × lairage duration (P < 0.0001); and (c) by season × transport duration × deck location (P = 0.02). Values with differing letters differ by P < 0.05.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4494428&req=5

animals-04-00627-f004: Serum cortisol concentrations (a) by transport duration (P = 0.0005) and by transport duration × lairage duration (P = 0.02); (b) by season × lairage duration (P < 0.0001); and (c) by season × transport duration × deck location (P = 0.02). Values with differing letters differ by P < 0.05.
Mentions: Cortisol remains active in the body longer than either epinephrine or norepinephrine [13] and is generally regarded as an indicator of the psychological state of an animal, as well as an index of its physiological reaction to environmental conditions and welfare situation [14]. Therefore, measurement of circulating cortisol concentration is common in research which evaluates pre-slaughter stress. Main effects of season, deck location, and lairage duration were not significant for serum cortisol concentration (P > 0.28). Transport duration had a significant (P < 0.001) effect on serum cortisol concentration with hogs being transported for 6 h having a greater serum cortisol concentration than hogs transported for only 3 h (103.0 vs. 95.5 ng/mL; Figure 4a). This was driven by the greater serum cortisol concentration in pigs transported for 3 h compared to pigs transported 6 h when lairaged for 3 h (93.0 vs. 105.4 ng/mL; P < 0.001) while pigs lairaged for 6 h had similar serum cortisol concentrations regardless of transport duration (97.9 vs. 100.5 ng/mL; P = 0.84). Hogs subjected to 3 h of lairage had greater serum cortisol concentrations than hogs subjected to 6 h of lairage in the winter, spring, and fall; however, this was only significant in the fall (P < 0.0001; Figure 4b). In the summer, the opposite was true with hogs subjected to 6 h of lairage having greater serum cortisol concentrations than hogs subjected to 3 h of lairage (122.9 vs. 79.7 ng/mL; P < 0.0001). With the exception of hogs transported on the top deck in the summer, hogs transported for 6 h had greater serum cortisol concentrations than hogs transported for 3 h, although this was only significant (P = 0.02) for hogs transported on the bottom deck during the summer (Figure 4c). Although not significant (P > 0.1), hogs transported for 3 h in the summer on the top deck had greater serum cortisol concentrations than hogs transported for 6 h (102.6 vs. 96.7 ng/mL).

Bottom Line: Season and deck did not have a main effect on cortisol concentrations or pork quality.Hogs transported 6 h had increased cortisol concentrations (103.0 vs. 95.5 ng/mL; P < 0.001) and decreased L* (52.49 vs. 52.69; P = 0.09), b* (6.28 vs. 6.36; P = 0.03), and hue angle (20.70 vs. 20.95; P = 0.03) compared to hogs transported 3 h.Hogs subjected to 6 h of lairage had increased 24-h pH (5.69 vs. 5.66; P = 0.005), a* (16.64 vs. 16.48; P < 0.0001), b* (6.42 vs. 6.22; P < 0.0001), saturation (17.85 vs. 17.64; P < 0.0001), and hue angle (21.01 vs. 20.65; P = 0.002) and decreased L* (52.49 vs. 52.69; P = 0.07) when compared to hogs subjected to 3 h of lairage.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Animal Sciences, North Dakota State University, Fargo, ND 58108, USA. david.newman@ndsu.edu.

ABSTRACT
The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of seasonal environment, transport conditions, and time in lairage on pork quality and serum cortisol concentrations. Market hogs were slaughtered during winter (n = 535), spring (n = 645), summer (n = 644), and fall (n = 488). Within season, hogs were randomly assigned to treatments in a 2 × 2 × 2 factorial arrangement, with 2 deck locations (top vs. bottom) and 2 transport and lairage durations (3 h vs. 6 h). Blood samples were collected at exsanguination for analysis of cortisol concentration. Loins were collected at 24 h postmortem for pork quality assessment. Season and deck did not have a main effect on cortisol concentrations or pork quality. Hogs transported 6 h had increased cortisol concentrations (103.0 vs. 95.5 ng/mL; P < 0.001) and decreased L* (52.49 vs. 52.69; P = 0.09), b* (6.28 vs. 6.36; P = 0.03), and hue angle (20.70 vs. 20.95; P = 0.03) compared to hogs transported 3 h. Hogs subjected to 6 h of lairage had increased 24-h pH (5.69 vs. 5.66; P = 0.005), a* (16.64 vs. 16.48; P < 0.0001), b* (6.42 vs. 6.22; P < 0.0001), saturation (17.85 vs. 17.64; P < 0.0001), and hue angle (21.01 vs. 20.65; P = 0.002) and decreased L* (52.49 vs. 52.69; P = 0.07) when compared to hogs subjected to 3 h of lairage.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus