Limits...
Behavioral Response of Invertebrates to Experimental Simulation of Pre-Seismic Chemical Changes.

Grant RA, Conlan H - Animals (Basel) (2015)

Bottom Line: One possible way in which animals could be affected by pre-earthquake processes is via stress activated positive holes leading to the formation of hydrogen peroxide at the rock water interface.Here, we carry out avoidance tests with hydrogen peroxide in two model organisms; Daphnia pulex and earthworms.Daphnia were found to move away from increasing concentrations of H₂O2 but earthworms appeared unaffected.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Animal and Land Sciences, Hartpury College, Hartpury, Gloucester GL19 3BE, UK. Rachel.grant@hartpury.ac.uk.

ABSTRACT
Unusual behavior before earthquakes has been reported for millennia but no plausible mechanism has been identified. One possible way in which animals could be affected by pre-earthquake processes is via stress activated positive holes leading to the formation of hydrogen peroxide at the rock water interface. Aquatic and fossorial animals could be irritated by H₂O₂ and move down the concentration gradient. Here, we carry out avoidance tests with hydrogen peroxide in two model organisms; Daphnia pulex and earthworms. Daphnia were found to move away from increasing concentrations of H₂O2 but earthworms appeared unaffected. It is possible that earthworm swarming behavior, reported frequently before earthquakes, is caused by electric field shifts or another unknown mechanism, whereas zooplankton may be affected by increasing levels of H₂O₂.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Showing the earthworm perfusion avoidance test.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4494413&req=5

animals-05-00206-f002: Showing the earthworm perfusion avoidance test.

Mentions: Mature earthworms, L. terestris, (10–14 cm) were kept in a standard substrate (John Innes No 3 potting compost) for one week prior to the experiment. Only active earthworms were used. The substrate was air dried (mean 10% soil moisture reading). Clear plastic containers (22 × 48 cm) with perforated bases were filled with the prepared substrate to a depth of 12 cm (Figure 2). Four earthworms were used for each treatment and each worm was only used once. Worms were randomly selected from group of 200 all living together in the same conditions. Four earth worms were spaced out evenly at a depth of 9 cm. The containers were lowered into a 5 cm deep water-bath with varying concentrations of hydrogen peroxide: zero (control), 0.0024 M, 0.024 M, 0.24 M, and 2.4 M prepared with degassed tap water. Each experiment was replicated three times (using 12 earthworms per treatment in total), for a total of 60 earthworms in this part of the experiment. The depth of the earthworms was recorded after 1 hour and 24 hours. Video recording was carried out to record any earthworms coming to the surface. The mean soil moisture readings after 24 hours at a depth of 3 cm was 24% and at 9 cm was 69%.


Behavioral Response of Invertebrates to Experimental Simulation of Pre-Seismic Chemical Changes.

Grant RA, Conlan H - Animals (Basel) (2015)

Showing the earthworm perfusion avoidance test.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4494413&req=5

animals-05-00206-f002: Showing the earthworm perfusion avoidance test.
Mentions: Mature earthworms, L. terestris, (10–14 cm) were kept in a standard substrate (John Innes No 3 potting compost) for one week prior to the experiment. Only active earthworms were used. The substrate was air dried (mean 10% soil moisture reading). Clear plastic containers (22 × 48 cm) with perforated bases were filled with the prepared substrate to a depth of 12 cm (Figure 2). Four earthworms were used for each treatment and each worm was only used once. Worms were randomly selected from group of 200 all living together in the same conditions. Four earth worms were spaced out evenly at a depth of 9 cm. The containers were lowered into a 5 cm deep water-bath with varying concentrations of hydrogen peroxide: zero (control), 0.0024 M, 0.024 M, 0.24 M, and 2.4 M prepared with degassed tap water. Each experiment was replicated three times (using 12 earthworms per treatment in total), for a total of 60 earthworms in this part of the experiment. The depth of the earthworms was recorded after 1 hour and 24 hours. Video recording was carried out to record any earthworms coming to the surface. The mean soil moisture readings after 24 hours at a depth of 3 cm was 24% and at 9 cm was 69%.

Bottom Line: One possible way in which animals could be affected by pre-earthquake processes is via stress activated positive holes leading to the formation of hydrogen peroxide at the rock water interface.Here, we carry out avoidance tests with hydrogen peroxide in two model organisms; Daphnia pulex and earthworms.Daphnia were found to move away from increasing concentrations of H₂O2 but earthworms appeared unaffected.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Animal and Land Sciences, Hartpury College, Hartpury, Gloucester GL19 3BE, UK. Rachel.grant@hartpury.ac.uk.

ABSTRACT
Unusual behavior before earthquakes has been reported for millennia but no plausible mechanism has been identified. One possible way in which animals could be affected by pre-earthquake processes is via stress activated positive holes leading to the formation of hydrogen peroxide at the rock water interface. Aquatic and fossorial animals could be irritated by H₂O₂ and move down the concentration gradient. Here, we carry out avoidance tests with hydrogen peroxide in two model organisms; Daphnia pulex and earthworms. Daphnia were found to move away from increasing concentrations of H₂O2 but earthworms appeared unaffected. It is possible that earthworm swarming behavior, reported frequently before earthquakes, is caused by electric field shifts or another unknown mechanism, whereas zooplankton may be affected by increasing levels of H₂O₂.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus