Limits...
Behavioral Response of Invertebrates to Experimental Simulation of Pre-Seismic Chemical Changes.

Grant RA, Conlan H - Animals (Basel) (2015)

Bottom Line: One possible way in which animals could be affected by pre-earthquake processes is via stress activated positive holes leading to the formation of hydrogen peroxide at the rock water interface.Here, we carry out avoidance tests with hydrogen peroxide in two model organisms; Daphnia pulex and earthworms.Daphnia were found to move away from increasing concentrations of H₂O2 but earthworms appeared unaffected.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Animal and Land Sciences, Hartpury College, Hartpury, Gloucester GL19 3BE, UK. Rachel.grant@hartpury.ac.uk.

ABSTRACT
Unusual behavior before earthquakes has been reported for millennia but no plausible mechanism has been identified. One possible way in which animals could be affected by pre-earthquake processes is via stress activated positive holes leading to the formation of hydrogen peroxide at the rock water interface. Aquatic and fossorial animals could be irritated by H₂O₂ and move down the concentration gradient. Here, we carry out avoidance tests with hydrogen peroxide in two model organisms; Daphnia pulex and earthworms. Daphnia were found to move away from increasing concentrations of H₂O2 but earthworms appeared unaffected. It is possible that earthworm swarming behavior, reported frequently before earthquakes, is caused by electric field shifts or another unknown mechanism, whereas zooplankton may be affected by increasing levels of H₂O₂.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Showing the formation of H2O2 in a pool above slices of Gabbro placed under mechanical stress in laboratory conditions. After Balk et al. [9].
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4494413&req=5

animals-05-00206-f001: Showing the formation of H2O2 in a pool above slices of Gabbro placed under mechanical stress in laboratory conditions. After Balk et al. [9].

Mentions: There exist dormant defects within igneous and high-grade metamorphic rocks which, when stressed, release electronic charge carriers. These charge carriers are defect electrons associated with O− in a matrix of O2 and called positive holes (pholes) and they are able to travel rapidly and far through the rock, in the order of meters in the laboratory and km in the field [9,10]. These cause a range of follow-on reactions when they arrive at the Earth’s surface, primarily air ionization and at the rock-water interface oxidation of water to hydrogen peroxide [9,10]. The formation of hydrogen peroxide at the rock water interface resulting from stressed rock has been demonstrated by Balk et al. [9] in the laboratory. Slices of Gabbro (an igneous rock, formed from cooling magma which underlies most of the Earth’s crust), were placed under mechanical stress underneath a small chamber containing water. H2O2 was formed in the chamber above the rock (Figure 1).


Behavioral Response of Invertebrates to Experimental Simulation of Pre-Seismic Chemical Changes.

Grant RA, Conlan H - Animals (Basel) (2015)

Showing the formation of H2O2 in a pool above slices of Gabbro placed under mechanical stress in laboratory conditions. After Balk et al. [9].
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4494413&req=5

animals-05-00206-f001: Showing the formation of H2O2 in a pool above slices of Gabbro placed under mechanical stress in laboratory conditions. After Balk et al. [9].
Mentions: There exist dormant defects within igneous and high-grade metamorphic rocks which, when stressed, release electronic charge carriers. These charge carriers are defect electrons associated with O− in a matrix of O2 and called positive holes (pholes) and they are able to travel rapidly and far through the rock, in the order of meters in the laboratory and km in the field [9,10]. These cause a range of follow-on reactions when they arrive at the Earth’s surface, primarily air ionization and at the rock-water interface oxidation of water to hydrogen peroxide [9,10]. The formation of hydrogen peroxide at the rock water interface resulting from stressed rock has been demonstrated by Balk et al. [9] in the laboratory. Slices of Gabbro (an igneous rock, formed from cooling magma which underlies most of the Earth’s crust), were placed under mechanical stress underneath a small chamber containing water. H2O2 was formed in the chamber above the rock (Figure 1).

Bottom Line: One possible way in which animals could be affected by pre-earthquake processes is via stress activated positive holes leading to the formation of hydrogen peroxide at the rock water interface.Here, we carry out avoidance tests with hydrogen peroxide in two model organisms; Daphnia pulex and earthworms.Daphnia were found to move away from increasing concentrations of H₂O2 but earthworms appeared unaffected.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Animal and Land Sciences, Hartpury College, Hartpury, Gloucester GL19 3BE, UK. Rachel.grant@hartpury.ac.uk.

ABSTRACT
Unusual behavior before earthquakes has been reported for millennia but no plausible mechanism has been identified. One possible way in which animals could be affected by pre-earthquake processes is via stress activated positive holes leading to the formation of hydrogen peroxide at the rock water interface. Aquatic and fossorial animals could be irritated by H₂O₂ and move down the concentration gradient. Here, we carry out avoidance tests with hydrogen peroxide in two model organisms; Daphnia pulex and earthworms. Daphnia were found to move away from increasing concentrations of H₂O2 but earthworms appeared unaffected. It is possible that earthworm swarming behavior, reported frequently before earthquakes, is caused by electric field shifts or another unknown mechanism, whereas zooplankton may be affected by increasing levels of H₂O₂.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus