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Characteristics of Trailer Thermal Environment during Commercial Swine Transport Managed under U.S. Industry Guidelines.

Xiong Y, Green A, Gates RS - Animals (Basel) (2015)

Bottom Line: Transport is a critical factor in modern pork production and can seriously affect swine welfare.Recommended bedding, boarding and water application were sufficient in this range.Observations indicate that arranging boarding placement may alter the ventilation patterns inside the trailer.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Agricultural and Biological Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1304 W. Pennsylvania Ave, Urbana, IL 61801, USA. yxiong5@illinois.edu.

ABSTRACT
Transport is a critical factor in modern pork production and can seriously affect swine welfare. While previous research has explored thermal conditions during transport, the impact of extreme weather conditions on the trailer thermal environment under industry practices has not been well documented; and the critical factors impacting microclimate are not well understood. To assess the trailer microclimate during transport events, an instrumentation system was designed and installed at the central ceiling level, pig level and floor-level in each of six zones inside a commercial swine trailer. Transport environmental data from 34 monitoring trips (approximately 1-4 h in duration each) were collected from May, 2012, to February, 2013, with trailer management corresponding to the National Pork Board Transport Quality Assurance (TQA) guidelines in 31 of these trips. According to the TQA guidelines, for outdoor temperature ranging from 5 °C (40 °F) to 27 °C (80 °F), acceptable thermal conditions were observed based on the criteria that no more than 10% of the trip duration was above 35 °C (95 °F) or below 0 °C (32 °F). Recommended bedding, boarding and water application were sufficient in this range. Measurements support relaxing boarding guidelines for moderate outdoor conditions, as this did not result in less desirable conditions. Pigs experienced extended undesirable thermal conditions for outdoor temperatures above 27 °C (80 °F) or below 5 °C (40 °F), meriting a recommendation for further assessment of bedding, boarding and water application guidelines for extreme outdoor temperatures. An Emergency Livestock Weather Safety Index (LWSI) condition was observed inside the trailer when outdoor temperature exceeded 10 °C (50 °F); although the validity of LWSI to indicate heat stress for pigs during transport is not well established. Extreme pig surface temperatures in the rear and middle zones of the trailer were more frequently experienced than in the front zones, and the few observations of pigs dead or down upon arrival were noted in these zones. Observations indicate that arranging boarding placement may alter the ventilation patterns inside the trailer.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Location and frequency of occurrence of extreme pig surface temperatures within the trailer for 34 monitoring trips over outdoor temperatures ranging from −14 to 38 °C (7 to 100 °F).
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animals-05-00226-f003: Location and frequency of occurrence of extreme pig surface temperatures within the trailer for 34 monitoring trips over outdoor temperatures ranging from −14 to 38 °C (7 to 100 °F).

Mentions: The dry bulb temperature difference between the pig’s skin and the air is the major contributor to the convective heat loss from the pigs to the environment. The greater the temperature differences, the greater is the convective component’s contribution to the overall heat loss for a pig, regardless of outdoor temperatures. The maximum and minimum pig surface temperatures captured by the infrared radiometer (IR) sensors represent the potential heat loss range encountered by the pigs and indicate the locations within the trailer where the most extreme thermal environment was experienced, which might compromise the performance of the pigs. Figure 3 demonstrates the frequency of occurrence for the zone location of the extreme pig surface temperatures for 34 monitoring trips.


Characteristics of Trailer Thermal Environment during Commercial Swine Transport Managed under U.S. Industry Guidelines.

Xiong Y, Green A, Gates RS - Animals (Basel) (2015)

Location and frequency of occurrence of extreme pig surface temperatures within the trailer for 34 monitoring trips over outdoor temperatures ranging from −14 to 38 °C (7 to 100 °F).
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4494411&req=5

animals-05-00226-f003: Location and frequency of occurrence of extreme pig surface temperatures within the trailer for 34 monitoring trips over outdoor temperatures ranging from −14 to 38 °C (7 to 100 °F).
Mentions: The dry bulb temperature difference between the pig’s skin and the air is the major contributor to the convective heat loss from the pigs to the environment. The greater the temperature differences, the greater is the convective component’s contribution to the overall heat loss for a pig, regardless of outdoor temperatures. The maximum and minimum pig surface temperatures captured by the infrared radiometer (IR) sensors represent the potential heat loss range encountered by the pigs and indicate the locations within the trailer where the most extreme thermal environment was experienced, which might compromise the performance of the pigs. Figure 3 demonstrates the frequency of occurrence for the zone location of the extreme pig surface temperatures for 34 monitoring trips.

Bottom Line: Transport is a critical factor in modern pork production and can seriously affect swine welfare.Recommended bedding, boarding and water application were sufficient in this range.Observations indicate that arranging boarding placement may alter the ventilation patterns inside the trailer.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Agricultural and Biological Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1304 W. Pennsylvania Ave, Urbana, IL 61801, USA. yxiong5@illinois.edu.

ABSTRACT
Transport is a critical factor in modern pork production and can seriously affect swine welfare. While previous research has explored thermal conditions during transport, the impact of extreme weather conditions on the trailer thermal environment under industry practices has not been well documented; and the critical factors impacting microclimate are not well understood. To assess the trailer microclimate during transport events, an instrumentation system was designed and installed at the central ceiling level, pig level and floor-level in each of six zones inside a commercial swine trailer. Transport environmental data from 34 monitoring trips (approximately 1-4 h in duration each) were collected from May, 2012, to February, 2013, with trailer management corresponding to the National Pork Board Transport Quality Assurance (TQA) guidelines in 31 of these trips. According to the TQA guidelines, for outdoor temperature ranging from 5 °C (40 °F) to 27 °C (80 °F), acceptable thermal conditions were observed based on the criteria that no more than 10% of the trip duration was above 35 °C (95 °F) or below 0 °C (32 °F). Recommended bedding, boarding and water application were sufficient in this range. Measurements support relaxing boarding guidelines for moderate outdoor conditions, as this did not result in less desirable conditions. Pigs experienced extended undesirable thermal conditions for outdoor temperatures above 27 °C (80 °F) or below 5 °C (40 °F), meriting a recommendation for further assessment of bedding, boarding and water application guidelines for extreme outdoor temperatures. An Emergency Livestock Weather Safety Index (LWSI) condition was observed inside the trailer when outdoor temperature exceeded 10 °C (50 °F); although the validity of LWSI to indicate heat stress for pigs during transport is not well established. Extreme pig surface temperatures in the rear and middle zones of the trailer were more frequently experienced than in the front zones, and the few observations of pigs dead or down upon arrival were noted in these zones. Observations indicate that arranging boarding placement may alter the ventilation patterns inside the trailer.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus